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    • The study of Confucius and Confucianism, not only as a historically significant inquiry but also as a philosophically meaningful and challenging endeavour, has come of age in the English-speaking world since the 1970s. In addition to the following bibliography, see WING-TSIT CHAN, An Outline and an Annotated Bibliography of Chinese Philosophy, rev. ed. (1969); and LAURENCE G. THOMPSON, Chinese Religion in Western Languages: A Comprehensive and Classified Bibliography of Publications in English, French, and German Through 1980 (1985).

  • Classical age:

    • For a major study of Confucius, see H.G. CREEL, Confucius: The Man and the Myth (1949, reissued 1975), also published as Confucius and the Chinese Way (1949, reprinted 1960). Also see HERBERT FINGARETTE, Confucius--The Secular as Sacred (1972), which perceives the Confucian idea of ritual as a philosophical issue; BENJAMIN I. SCHWARTZ, The World of Thought in Ancient China (1985), which approaches Confucius and Confucianism as a challenging intellectual enterprise in comparative studies of great civilizations; and D.C. LAU, The Analects (Lun Yü) (1979, reissued 1986), and Mencius (1970), modern translations from Chinese. I.A. RICHARDS, Mencius on the Mind: Experiments in Multiple Definition (1932, reissued 1983); and EZRA POUND (trans.), The Classic Anthology Defined by Confucius (1954, reprinted 1976), also published as The Confucian Odes (1959), are literary achievements. RICHARD WILHELM (trans.), The I Ching: or, Book of Changes, 3rd ed. (1967, reprinted 1981; originally published in German, 1924), is unsurpassed in its richness of primary sources and clarity of presentation. For scholarly interpretations of classical Confucian thought, see DONALD J. MUNRO, The Concept of Man in Early China (1969); HOMER H. DUBS, Hsüntze: The Moulder of Ancient Confucianism (1927, reissued 1966); TU WEI-MING, Centrality and Commonality: An Essay on Chung-yung (1976); and HELLMUT WILHELM, Heaven, Earth, and Man in "The Book of Changes" (1977). JOHN K. SHRYOCK, The Origin and Development of the State Cult of Confucius (1932, reprinted 1966), is a pioneering attempt to study Confucianism as a Chinese national institution.
  • The Confucian tradition:

    • Important primary sources, all translated from Chinese, can be found in WING-TSIT CHAN (trans.), Reflections on Things at Hand: The Neo-Confucian Anthology (1967), writings compiled by Chu Hsi and Lü Tsu-ch'ien, Neo-Confucian Terms Explained: The Pei-Hsi Tzu-I (1986), writings by Ch'en Ch'un, and Instructions for Practical Living, and Other Neo-Confucian Writings (1963), writings by Wang Yang-ming; and JULIA CHING (ed. and trans.), The Records of Ming Scholars (1987), excerpts from writings by Huang Tsung-hsi. Several symposium volumes dedicated to the study of the Neo-Confucian form of life have been published, including WM. THEODORE DE BARY (ed.), Self and Society in Ming Thought (1970), and The Unfolding of Neo-Confucianism (1975); WM. THEODORE DE BARY and IRENE BLOOM (eds.), Principle and Practicality: Essays in Neo-Confucianism and Practical Learning (1979); HOK-LAM CHAN and WM. THEODORE DE BARY (eds.), Yüan Thought: Chinese Thought and Religion Under the Mongols (1982); and WM. THEODORE DE BARY and JaHYUN KIM HABOUSH (eds.), The Rise of Neo-Confucianism in Korea (1985). For an impressive collection of essays on Chu Hsi, see WING-TSIT CHAN (ed.), Chu Hsi and Neo-Confucianism (1986). Studies on major thinkers include CHI-YUN CHEN, Hsün Yüeh (A.D. 148-209): The Life and Reflection of an Early Medieval Confucian (1975); JAMES T.C. LIU, Ou-yang Hsiu: An Eleventh-Century Neo-Confucianist (1967; originally published in Chinese, 1963); A.C. GRAHAM, Two Chinese Philosophers: Ch'êng Ming-tao and Ch'êng Yi-ch'uan (1958, reprinted 1978); HOYT CLEVELAND TILLMAN, Utilitarian Confucianism: Ch'en Liang's Challenge to Chu Hsi (1982); WINSTON WAN LO, The Life and Thought of Yeh Shih (1974); JULIA CHING, To Acquire Wisdom: The Way of Wang Yang-ming (1976); TU WEI-MING, Neo-Confucian Thought in Action: Wang Yang-ming's Youth (1472-1509) (1976); EDWARD T. CH'IEN, Chiao Hung and the Restructuring of Neo-Confucianism in the Late Ming (1986); and DAVID S. NIVISON, The Life and Thought of Chang Hsüeh-ch'eng, 1738-1801 (1966). Monographs on significant issues include WM. THEODORE DE BARY, Neo-Confucian Orthodoxy and the Learning of the Mind-and-Heart (1981), and The Liberal Tradition in China (1983); DANIEL K. GARDNER, Chu Hsi and the Ta-hsueh: Neo-Confucian Reflection on the Confucian Canon (1986); JOHN W. DARDESS, Confucianism and Autocracy: Professional Elites in the Founding of the Ming Dynasty (1983); BENJAMIN A. ELMAN, From Philosophy to Philology: Intellectual and Social Aspects of Change in Late Imperial China (1984); and TU WEI-MING, Humanity and Self-Cultivation: Essays in Confucian Thought (1979). Three studies in comparative philosophy and religion are noteworthy: DAVID E. MUNGELLO, Leibniz and Confucianism: The Search for Accord (1977); JULIA CHING, Confucianism and Christianity (1977); and JACQUES GERNET, China and the Christian Impact: A Conflict of Cultures (1985; originally published in French, 1982).
  • Modern transformation:

    • Confucianism as it exists in the 20th century is discussed in WING-TSIT CHAN, Religious Trends in Modern China (1953, reissued 1969). The thesis that Confucian humanism is incompatible with modernization defined in terms of industrial capitalism was first formulated in MAX WEBER, The Religion of China: Confucianism and Taoism (1951; originally published in German, 1922). JOSEPH R. LEVENSON, Confucian China and Its Modern Fate: A Trilogy, 3 vol. in 1 (1965, reissued 1968), further develops the claim that Confucianism could not survive the challenge of Western science and technology. Critical reflections on the Weberian and Levensonian interpretation include HAO CHANG, Liang Ch'i-ch'ao and Intellectual Transition in China, 1890-1907 (1971); CHARLOTTE FURTH (ed.), The Limits of Change: Essays on Conservative Alternatives in Republican China (1976); and THOMAS A. METZGER, Escape from Predicament: Neo-Confucianism and China's Evolving Political Culture (1977). The reasons for iconoclastic attacks on the Confucian tradition are explored in LIN YÜ-SHENG, The Crisis of Chinese Consciousness: Radical Antitraditionalism in the May Fourth Era (1979); and KAM LOUIE, Critiques of Confucius in Contemporary China (1980). Studies of modern Confucian personalities include KUNG-CHUAN HSIAO, A Modern China and a New World: K'ang Yu-wei, Reformer and Utopian, 1858-1927 (1975); HAO CHANG, Chinese Intellectuals in Crisis: Search for Order and Meaning (1890-1911) (1987); JOEY BONNER, Wang Kuo-wei: An Intellectual Biography (1986); and GUY S. ALITTO, The Last Confucian: Liang Shu-ming and the Chinese Dilemma of Modernity, 2nd ed. (1986). For contemporary manifestations of the Confucian tradition, see IRENE EBER (ed.), Confucianism: The Dynamics of a Tradition (1986); and TU WEI-MING, Confucian Ethics Today: The Singapore Challenge (1984).
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