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Philosophy 

철학 - 지혜의 탐구

I Ching

역경 (易經)

I Ching, also spelled YI CHING, Pinyin YI JING (Chinese: "Classic of Changes," or "Book of Changes"), an ancient Chinese text, one of the Five Classics (Wu Ching) of Confucianism. The main body of the work has traditionally been attributed to Wen Wang (fl. 12th century BC), sage and father of the founder of the Chou dynasty, and contains a discussion of the divinatory system used by the Chou dynasty wizards. A supplementary section of "commentaries" is believed to be the work of authors of the Warring States period (475-221 BC) and, as a philosophical exposition, represents an attempt to explain the world and its ethical principles, applying a largely dialectic method. For this the work came to have great importance in the history of Chinese philosophy. Modern scholars, nevertheless, have been troubled by the inclusion of the I Ching among the Confucian classics, for Confucius (551-479 BC) seems to have deliberately avoided speaking of anything that suggested esoteric doctrines. The answer seems to be that Han dynasty Confucianists (c. 2nd century BC), influenced by the Taoist quest for immortality, justified their use of I Ching by attributing certain of its commentaries to Confucius. It was then a natural step to include the book among the Five Classics of antiquity.

Though the book was originally used for divination, its influence on Chinese minds and its universal popularity are due to a system of cosmology that involves humans and nature in a single system. The uniqueness of the I Ching consists in its presentation of 64 symbolic hexagrams that, if properly understood and interpreted, are said to contain profound meanings applicable to daily life. Throughout the ages, I Ching enthusiasts have claimed that the book is a means of understanding, and even controlling, future events.

The I Ching hexagrams are formed by joining in pairs, one above the other, eight basic trigrams (pa kua). Each trigram has a name, a root meaning, and a symbolic meaning. The legendary emperor Fu Hsi (24th century BC) is said to have discovered these trigrams on the back of a tortoise. Wen Wang is generally credited with having formed the hexagrams.

In practice, one "creates" a hexagram by casting lots in one of several ways. The hexagram is built up from the bottom, line by line, by successive lots. Solid lines have the number nine, broken lines have the number six. Solid lines represent yang (the male cosmic principle), while broken lines represent yin (the female cosmic principle). These two principles explain all being and all change by their ceaseless interaction.

Individual lines of a hexagram have been compared to single notes of music. Though each note has a quality and significance in itself, its truest significance depends on its place in a musical score. Because the same principle applies to individual lines of a hexagram, the I Ching text first explains each line separately, then gives an overall interpretation of the unit. The text is often expressed in cryptic, thought-provoking language, thus allowing the user great leeway in interpreting its significance.

 

주역 (周易)

(병)Zhouyi (웨)Choui.

중국의 유교 경전.

〈역경 易經〉이라고도 한다. 〈경 經〉·〈전 傳〉의 두 부분을 포함하며 대략 2만 4,000자이다. 주(周)의 문왕이 지었다고 전해진다. 괘(卦)·효(爻)의 2가지 부호를 중첩하여 이루어진 64괘·384효, 괘사(卦辭), 효사(爻辭)로 구성되어 있는데, 괘상(卦象)에 따라 길흉화복을 점쳤다. 주나라 사람이 간단하게 8괘로 점을 치는 책이었으므로 〈주역〉이라고 했다. 정이(程)의 주석서 〈역전 易傳〉은 경전의 해석을 통해 철학적인 관점을 나타내고 있을 뿐만 아니라 세계관, 윤리학설 및 풍부하고 소박한 변증법을 담고 있어, 중국 철학사상 중요한 위치를 차지하고 있다. 〈역전〉 계사편(繫辭篇) 등에서는 음·양 세력의 교감작용을 철학범주로 격상시켜 세계 만사만물(萬事萬物)을 통일된 체계로 조성했다. 이로써 진대(秦代)·한대(漢代) 이후의 사상계에 많은 영향을 끼쳤으며 서양 학자들의 관심을 끌었다. 주석본은 매우 많으나, 일반적으로 알려진 것은 〈주역정의 周易正義〉(위나라 王弼 및 진나라 韓康伯의 注, 당나라 孔穎達의 疏)·〈주역집해 周易集解〉(당나라 李鼎祚의 輯), 현대 가오헝[高亭]의 〈주역고경금주 周易古經今注〉·〈주역대전금주 周易大傳今注〉가 있다.

 

   


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