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Philosophy 

철학 - 지혜의 탐구

Lun yu

논어 (論語)

Lun yu; (Chinese: "Conversations"), English ANALECTS, one of four Confucian texts that, when published together in 1190 by the Neo-Confucian philosopher Chu Hsi, became the great Chinese classic known as Ssu shu (q.v.; "Four Books").

논어 (論語, (병)Lun yü (웨)Lun yü (영)Analects). 유교 경전으로 알려진 4서(四書)의 하나. 4서는 1190년에 중국의 성리학자인 주희(朱熹)가 집대성했으며 4권으로 이루어진 중국의 위대한 고전이다. 

Lun yu is considered by scholars to be the most reliable source of the doctrine of the ancient sage Confucius (551-479 BC) and is usually the first Confucian text studied in schools. It covers practically all the basic ethical concepts of Confucius--e.g., jen ("benevolence"), chun-tzu ("the superior man"), t'ien ("Heaven"), chung yung (doctrine of "the mean"), li ("proper conduct"), and cheng ming ("adjustment to names"). The last inculcates the notion that all phases of a person's conduct should correspond to the true significance of "names"--e.g., marriage should be true marriage, not concubinage.

그중 〈논어〉는 공자(孔子:BC 551~479)의 가르침을 전하는 가장 확실한 옛 문헌으로, 일반적으로 유교 경전을 가르칠 때 제일 먼저 가르친다. 인(仁)·군자(君子)·천(天)·중용(中庸)·예(禮)·정명(正名) 등 공자의 기본 윤리개념을 모두 담고 있다. '>정명'이란 사람이 행함에 있어 모든 면에서 '이름'의 진정한 뜻에 일치해야 한다는 가르침이다. 그 예로 "결혼은 내연의 관계가 아닌, 명실상부한 정식결혼이어야 한다" 등을 들 수 있다.

Among many direct quotations attributed to Confucius is one explaining filial piety (hsiao). If hsiao means nothing more than providing for parents, said Confucius, even dogs and horses do that; hsiao does not exist without genuine respect for parents. Lun yu also contains homely glimpses of Confucius as recorded by his disciples.

공자가 직접 예로 들어 설명한 것 가운데 효도에 대한 내용이 특히 많다. 공자는 개나 말도 마음만 먹으면 효도를 할 수 있다고 말한다. 부모에 대해 진정으로 존경하는 마음이 없이 '효'는 있을 수 없다는 뜻이다. 〈논어〉는 또한 그의 제자들이 기록한 공자의 일상적인 모습을 담고 있다. 

In general, Lun yu is unsystematic, occasionally repetitive, and sometimes inaccurate historically.

반면에 전반적으로 체계적이지 못하고 같은 내용이 자주 되풀이되며, 가끔 역사적으로 정확하지 못한 부분도 있다.

The following selections from Confucius's Analects, or "Assorted Sayings," illustrate some of his core ideas: humanity, loyalty, reciprocity, and ritual. When Fan Chi asks about "humanity," Confucius answers, "love men," a phrase that literally means "be concerned about others." The disciple Zeng Zi says that Confucius's teaching is "loyalty and reciprocity"; one should do one's best for others and identify as much as one can with the other person. Confucius was also concerned about "ritual," the whole collection of customs and manners in society. He viewed ritual as the binding force of a community and its cultivation as the duty of scholars. References below are to book and verse numbers.  

From the Analects of Confucius

 

Confucius said: "Learning without thinking is labor lost; thinking without learning is perilous." [II:15]

Confucius said: "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, say that you know it; when you do not know a thing, admit that you do not know it. That is knowledge." [II:17]

Confucius said: "Worthy indeed was Hui! A single bamboo bowl of millet to eat, a gourdful of water to drink, living in a back alleythers would have found it unendurably depressing, but Hui's cheerfulness was not affected at all. Worthy indeed was Hui!" [VI:9]

When Yen Hui died Confucius bewailed him with exceeding grief. His followers thereupon said to him: "Sir! You are carrying your grief to excess." Confucius said: "Have I gone to excess? But if I may not grieve exceedingly over this man, for whom shall I grieve?" [XI:9]

Confucius said: "A young man's duty is to be filial to his parents at home and respectful to his elders abroad, to be circumspect and truthful, and, while overflowing with love for all men, to associate himself with humanity (ren). If, when all that is done, he has any energy to spare, then let him study the polite arts." [I:6]

Confucius said: "Shen! My teaching contains one principle that runs through it all.""Yes," replied Zeng Zi. When Confucius had left the room the disciples asked: "What did he mean?" Zeng Zi replied: "Our Master's teaching is simply this: loyalty and reciprocity." [IV:15]

Zigong asked: "Is there any one word that can serve as a principle for the conduct of life?" Confucius said: "Perhaps the word eciprocity? Do not do to others what you would not want others to do to you." [XV:23]

Fan Chi asked about humanity. Confucius said: "Love men." [XII:22]

Zi Zhang asked Confucius about humanity. Confucius said: "To be able to practice five virtues everywhere in the world constitutes humanity." Zi Zhang begged to know what these were. Confucius said: "Courtesy, magnanimity, good faith, diligence, and kindness. He who is courteous is not humiliated, he who is magnanimous wins the multitude, he who is of good faith is trusted by the people, he who is diligent attains his objective, and he who is kind can get service from the people." [XVII:6]

Confucius said: "Without humanity a man cannot long endure adversity, nor can he long enjoy prosperity. The humane rest in humanity; the wise find it beneficial." [IV:2]

Confucius said: "Only the humane man can love men and can hate men." [IV:3]

Someone inquired: "What do you think of equiting injury with kindness?" Confucius said: "How will you then requite kindness? Requite injury with justice, and kindness with kindness." [XIV:36]

Confucius said: "Is humanity something remote? If I want to be humane, behold, humanity has arrived." [VII:29]

Confucius said: ..."Is there anyone who exerts himself even for a single day to achieve humanity? I have not seen any who had not the strength to achieve it." [IV:6]

Confucius said: "As to Hui, for three months his mind did not deviate from humanity. The others can do so, some for a day, some even for a month, but that is all." [VI:5]

Confucius said: "Riches and honor are what every man desires, but if they can be obtained only by transgressing the right way, they must not be held. Poverty and lowliness are what every man detests, but if they can be avoided only by transgressing the right way, they must not be evaded. If a gentleman departs from humanity, how can he bear the name? Not even for the lapse of a single meal does a gentleman ignore humanity. In moments of haste he cleaves to it: in seasons of peril he cleaves to it." [IV:5]

Confucius said: "The resolute scholar and the humane person will under no circumstance seek life at the expense of humanity. On occasion they will sacrifice their lives to preserve their humanity."

Source: William Theodore de Bary et al., ed. Sources of Chinese Tradition. Vol. 1. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960.

   

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