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철학 - 지혜의 탐구

II. General characteristics

 도교의 일반적 내용



1) Lao-tzu and the Tao-te Ching.

Behind all forms of Taoism stands the figure of Lao-tzu, traditionally regarded as the author of the classic text known as the Lao-tzu, or the Tao-te Ching ("Classic of the Way of Power"). The first mention of Lao-tzu is found in another early classic of Taoist speculation, the Chuang-tzu (4th-3rd century BC), so called after the name of its author. In this work Lao-tzu is described as being one of Chuang-tzu's own teachers, and the same book contains many of the Master's (Lao-tzu's) discourses, generally introduced by the questions of a disciple. The Chuang-tzu also presents seven versions of a meeting of Lao-tzu and Confucius. Lao-tzu is portrayed as the elder and his Taoist teachings confound his celebrated interlocutor. The Chuang-tzu also gives the only account of Lao-tzu's death. Thus in this early source, Lao-tzu appears as a senior contemporary of Confucius (6th-5th century BC) and a renowned Taoist master, a curator of the archives at the court of the Chou dynasty (c. 1111-255 BC) and, finally, a mere mortal.

도가와 경전

노자 도덕경


도교의 모든 이론은 노자에 의해 마련되었다. 노자에 대해서는 〈장자〉에서 처음 나온다. 


The first consistent biographical account of Lao-tzu is found in the "Historical Records" (Shih-chi)--China's first universal history (2nd century BC)--of Ssu-ma Ch'ien. This concise résumé has served as the classical source on the philosopher's life. Lao-tzu's family name was Li, his given name Erh; and he occupied the post of archivist at the Chou court. He is said to have instructed Confucius on points of ceremony. Observing the decline of the Chou dynasty, Lao-tzu left the court and headed west. At the request of Yin Hsi, the guardian of the frontier pass, he wrote his treatise on the Tao in two scrolls. He then left China behind, and what became of him is not known. The historian quotes variant accounts, including one that attributed to Lao-tzu an exceptional longevity; the narrative terminates with the genealogy of eight generations of Lao-tzu's supposed descendants. With passing references in other early texts, this constitutes the body of information on the life of the sage as of the 2nd century BC; it is presumably legendary (see also LAO-TZU in the Micropædia).

사마천(司馬遷)은 〈사기〉에서 당시까지의 전설을 모아 그에 대한 체계적인 최초의 전기를 썼다. 이들에 따르면 노자의 성은 이(李), 이름은 이(耳)이고, 주(周) 조정에서 장서를 관리하는 사관(史官)을 지냈다. 공자가 그에게 예를 질문했다고 하며 뒤에 은퇴하여 〈노자〉(또는 〈도덕경〉)를 지었다. 

Modern scholarship has little to add to the Shih-chi account, and the Tao-te Ching, regarded by many scholars as a compilation that reached its final form only in the 3rd century BC, rather than the work of a single author, stands alone, with all its attractions and enigmas, as the fundamental text of both philosophical and religious Taoism.

그러나 〈도덕경〉은 노자 한 사람의 저술이 아니고 여러 사람에 의해 BC 3세기경에 편찬된 것으로 보는 것이 정설이다. 

The work's 81 brief sections contain only about 5,000 characters in all, from which fact derives still another of its titles, Lao Tzu's Five Thousand Words. The text itself appears in equal measure to express a profound quietism and determined views on government. It is consequently between the extremes of meditative introspection and political application that its many and widely divergent interpreters have veered.

The Tao-te Ching was meant as a handbook for the ruler. He should be a sage whose actions pass so unnoticed that his very existence remains unknown. He imposes no restrictions or prohibitions on his subjects; "so long as I love quietude, the people will of themselves go straight. So long as I act only by inactivity, the people will of themselves become prosperous." His simplicity makes the Ten Thousand Beings passionless and still and peace follows naturally. He does not teach them discrimination, virtue, or ambition because "when intellect emerges, the great artifices begin. When discord is rife in families, 'dutiful sons' appear. When the State falls into anarchy, 'loyal subjects' appear." Thus, it is better to banish wisdom, righteousness, and ingenuity, and the people will benefit a hundredfold.

〈도덕경〉은 군주에 대한 지침서이다. 

Therefore the Holy Man rules by emptying their hearts (minds) and filling their bellies, weakening their wills and strengthening their bones, ever striving to make the people knowledgeless and desireless.

이 책에서는 "성인(聖人)만이 군주가 되어야 하고 성군(聖君)은 백성에게 어떠한 금지나 제한을 두어서는 안 된다.

The word people in this passage more likely refers not to the common people but to those nobles and intellectuals who incite the ruler's ambition and aggressiveness.

 분별·도덕·욕심 때문에 모든 번잡한 문제가 일어나므로 성군은 백성들이 이것을 제거하도록 다스려야 한다"고 규정짓고 있다. 

War is condemned but not entirely excluded: "Arms are ill-omened instruments," and the sage uses them only when he cannot do otherwise. He does not glory in victory; "he that has conquered in battle is received with rites of mourning."

The book shares certain constants of classical Chinese thought but clothes them in an imagery of its own. The sacred aura surrounding kingship is here rationalized and expressed as "inaction" (wu-wei), demanding of the sovereign no more than right cosmological orientation at the centre of an obedient universe. Survivals of archaic notions concerning the compelling effect of renunciation--which the Confucians sanctified as ritual "deference" ( jang)--are echoed in the recommendation to "hold to the role of the female," with an eye to the ultimate mastery that comes of passivity. (see also  political philosophy)

이 책에서 성인의 개념은 중국의 다른 경전에서 크게 벗어나지 않는다. 다만 자신의 고유한 언어로 표현하고 있을 뿐이다. 왕의 권위를 둘러싸고 있는 신성한 영기(靈氣)는 여기에서 '무위'(無爲)로 표현된다. 이 무위는 우주론적 정향을 지향하는 것, 즉 부자연스런 행위를 조금도 하지 않는 것을 의미한다. 이러한 의미에서 강경함을 제압하는 정치의 한 방법으로 여성적인 유약함이나 소극성이 찬양되는 것이다. 

It is more particularly in the function attributed to the Tao, or Way, that this little tract stands apart. The term Tao was employed by all schools of thought. The universe has its Tao; there is a Tao of the sovereign, his royal mode of being, while the Tao of man comprises continuity through procreation. Each of the schools, too, had its own Tao, its way or doctrine. But in the Tao-te Ching, the ultimate unity of the universal Tao itself is being proposed as a social ideal. It is this idealistic peculiarity that seems to justify later historians and bibliographers in their assignment of the term Taoist to the Tao-te Ching and its successors.

또한 〈도덕경〉은 보편적인 도(道) 자체의 궁극적인 통일을 사회적 이상으로 본다.

From a literary point of view, the Tao-te Ching is distinguished for its highly compressed style. Unlike the dialectic or anecdotal composition of other contemporary treatises, it articulates its cryptic subject matter in short, concise statements. More than half of these are in rhyme, and close parallelism recurs throughout the text. No proper name occurs anywhere. Although its historical enigmas are apparently insoluble, there is abundant testimony to the vast influence exercised by the book since the earliest times and in surprisingly varied social contexts. Among the classics of speculative Taoism, it alone holds the distinction of having become a scripture of the esoteric Taoist movements, which developed their own interpretations of its ambiguities and transmitted it as a sacred text.

 문학에서는 당시대의 대화법과 일화를 소개하는 다른 작품들과는 달리 〈도덕경〉은 신비적인 주제들을 간결한 문장으로 명료하게 표현해낸 고도의 압축된 문체로 유명하다.

2) The interpretation of Chuang-tzu.

Pseudohistorical knowledge of the sage Chuang-tzu is even less well defined than that of Lao-tzu. Most of Ssu-ma Ch'ien's brief portrait of the man is transparently drawn from anecdotes in the Chuang-tzu itself and as such has no necessary basis in fact. The Chuang-tzu, however, is valuable as a monument of Chinese literature and because it contains considerable documentary material, describing numerous speculative trends and spiritual practices of the Warring States period (475-221 BC).

장자의 해석

〈사기〉는 장자의 사상을 다음과 같이 말하고 있다. "그 학문은 엿보지 않은 곳이 없으며, 근본에서는 노자의 사상으로 귀결된다……" 이와 같이 장자는 노자와 도가사상을 계승했고 더 나아가 노자와 구분되는 사상적 특색을 가지고 자신의 독특한 철학사상 체계와 학풍, 그리고 문풍(文風)을 형성시켰다.


Whereas the Tao-te Ching is addressed to the sage-king, the Chuang-tzu is the earliest surviving Chinese text to present a philosophy for private life, a wisdom for the individual. Chuang-tzu is said to have preferred the doctrine of Lao-tzu over all others; many of his writings strike the reader as metaphorical illustrations of the terse sayings of the "Old Master."

 〈도덕경〉이 성군을 향한 것으로서 사회적·정치적 개혁을 목표로 했다면 〈장자〉는 개인의 생활·본성을 보전하는 것을 목표로 했다.


Whereas Lao-tzu in his book as well as in his life (in legend) was concerned with Taoist rule, Chuang-tzu, some generations later, rejected all participation in society. He compared the servant of state to the well-fed decorated ox being led to sacrifice in the temple and himself to the untended piglet blissfully frolicking in the mire.

 노자가 그의 책과 삶에서 도가의 기본원리에 주된 관심을 두었다면, 몇 세대 뒤의 장자는 사회 참여를 일절 거부하고 궁극적인 관심을 소요유(逍遙遊)에 두었다. 


Here there is none of the Tao-te Ching's studied density. The rambling Chuang-tzu opens with a sprightly fable, illustrating the incomprehension of small wildfowl of the majestic splendour of a gigantic bird. Other such parables demonstrate the relativity of all values: the sliding scales of size, utility, beauty, and perfection. There is a colloquy between the Lord of the Yellow River and the God of the Eastern Ocean, in which the complacent self-satisfaction of the lesser spirit is shaken by his unexpected meeting with inconceivable vastness. Humble artisans are depicted, who, through the perfect mastery of their craft, exemplify for their social superiors the art of mastering life. Life and death are equated, and the dying are seen to welcome their approaching transformation as a fusion with the Tao. A succession of acquiescent cripples exclaims in rapture on the strange forms in which it has pleased heaven to shape them. Those involved in state ritual are brought onstage only to be mocked, and the propositions of contemporary logic-choppers are drawn into the unending whirl of paradox, spun out to their conclusions, and so abolished. Such are a few aspects of this wild kaleidoscope of unconventional thought, a landmark in Chinese literature. Its concluding chapter is a systematic account of the preeminent thinkers of the time, and the note of mock despair on which it closes typifies the Chuang-tzu's position regarding the more formal, straitlaced ideologies that it parodies.

Among the strange figures that people the pages of Chuang-tzu are a very special class of spiritualized being. Dwelling far apart from the turbulent world of men, dining on air and sipping the dew, they share none of the anxieties of ordinary folk and have the smooth, untroubled faces of children. These "supreme men," or "perfect men," are immune to the effects of the elements, untouched by heat and cold. They possess the power of flight and are described as mounting upward with a fluttering (hsien) motion. Their effortless existence was the ultimate in autonomy, the natural spontaneity that Chuang-tzu ceaselessly applauds. These striking portraits may have been intended to be allegorical, but whatever their original meaning, these Immortals (hsien), as they came to be called, were to become the centre of great interest. Purely literary descriptions of their freedom, their breathtaking mobility, and their agelessness were construed as practical objectives by later generations. By a variety of practices, men attempted to attain these qualities in their own persons, and in time Chuang-tzu's unfettered paragons of liberty were to see themselves classified according to kind and degree in a hierarchy of the heavenly hosts (see also CHUANG-TZU in the Micropædia).

〈장자〉에서는 또한 모든 가치의 상대성이 강조된다. 만물일제(萬物一齊)의 사상, 즉 "도의 관점에서 세상을 보게 되면 이 세상에서 귀하고 천한 것의 구분이 없다"(以道觀之, 物無貴賤)는 것이다. 즉 삶과 죽음은 같으며 따라서 죽음 자체는 도에 합치되는 것으로 이해된다.



Certain concepts of ancient agrarian religion have dominated Chinese thought uninterruptedly from before the formation of the philosophic schools until the first radical break with tradition and the overthrow of dynastic rule at the beginning of the 20th century, and they are thus not specifically Taoist. The most important of these concepts are: the solidarity of nature and man; that is, the interaction between the universe and human society; the cyclical character of time and the universal rhythm and the law of return; and the worship of ancestors, the cult of Heaven, and the divine nature of the sovereign.





도가사상에서 가장 중요한 것은 자연과 인간의 합일, 다시 말하면 우주와 인간사회의 상호작용, 시간의 주기적 성격과 우주의 리듬, 복귀(反者道之動)의 법칙 등이다.


1) Concepts of the universe and natural order.

i) Cosmology.

What Lao-tzu calls the "permanent Tao" in reality is nameless. The name (ming) in ancient Chinese thought implied an evaluation assigning an object its place in a hierarchical universe. The Tao is outside these categories.

우주와 자연질서의 개념

① 우주론 : 

It is something formlessly fashioned, that existed before Heaven and Earth; . . . Its name (ming) we do not know; Tao is the byname that we give it. Were I forced to say to what class of things it belongs I should call it Immense.

Tao is the "imperceptible, indiscernible," about which nothing can be predicated but that latently contains the forms, entities, and forces of all particular phenomena: "It was from the Nameless that Heaven and Earth sprang; the Named is the mother that rears the Ten Thousand Beings, each after its kind." The Nameless (wu-ming) and the Named (yu-ming), Not-Being (wu) and Being (yu), are interdependent and "grow out of one another."

노자는 "말할 수 있는 도는 영원불변한 도가 아니요, 이름 붙일 수 있는 이름은 언제나 변하지 않는 이름이 아니다"(道可道 非常道, 名可名 非常名)라고 했다. 이는 중국 고대사상 중에서 안정된 사회를 이룩하려면 각자의 이름[名 : 신분]에 걸맞는 내용을 갖고 책임을 져야 한다는 정명론(正名論)과는 그 범주에서 다르다. "무명(無名)은 천지의 시초요 유명(有名)은 만물의 모태(母胎)이다." 즉 무명과 유명, 무와 유는 상호의존적이며 영원한 도의 양 측면이다. 

Not-Being (wu) and Tao are not identical; wu and yu are two aspects of the permanent Tao: "in its mode of being Unseen, we will see its mysteries; in the mode of the Seen, we will see its boundaries."

Not-Being does not mean Nothingness but rather the absence of perceptible qualities; in Lao-tzu's view it is superior to Being. It is the Void (that is, empty incipience) that harbours in itself all potentialities and without which even Being lacks its efficacy.

무는 아무 것도 없음이 아니라 감지할 수 있는 질(質)이 없음을 의미한다. 노자에게서 무는 유보다 상위개념이다.

Emptiness realized in the mind of the Taoist who has freed himself from all obstructing notions and distracting passions makes the Tao act through him without obstacle. An essential characteristic that governs the Tao is spontaneity (tzu-jan), the what-is-so-of-itself, the self-so, the unconditioned. The Tao, in turn, governs the universe: "The ways of Heaven are conditioned by those of the Tao, and the ways of Tao by the Self-so."

This is the way of the saint who does not intervene but possesses the total power of spontaneous realization that is at work in the universe; of his accomplishments "everyone, throughout the country, says 'It happened of its own accord' (tzu-jan)."

ii) The microcosm-macrocosm concept.

The conception of the universe common to all Chinese philosophy is neither materialistic nor animistic (a belief system centring on soul substances); it can be called magical or even alchemical. The universe is viewed as a hierarchically organized mechanism in which every part reproduces the whole. Man is a microcosm (small universe) corresponding rigorously to this macrocosm (large universe); his body reproduces the plan of the cosmos. Between man and universe there exists a system of correspondences and participations that the ritualists, philosophers, alchemists, and physicians have described but certainly not invented. This originally magical feeling of the integral unity of mankind and the natural order has always characterized the Chinese mentality, and the Taoists especially have elaborated upon it. The five organs of the body and its orifices and the dispositions, features, and passions of man correspond to the five directions, the five holy mountains, the sections of the sky, the seasons, and the elements (wu-hsing), which in China are not material but more like five fundamental phases of any process in space-time. Whoever understands man thus understands the structure of the universe. The physiologist knows that blood circulates because rivers carry water and that the body has 360 articulations because the ritual year has 360 days. In religious Taoism the interior of the body is inhabited by the same gods as those of the macrocosm. An adept often searches for his divine teacher in all the holy mountains of China until he finally discovers him in one of the "palaces" inside his head.

 ② 소우주와 대우주 개념 : 

인간은 대우주에 대응하는 소우주이다. 인간과 우주 사이에는 그 체계에서 일치하는 점과 연관성이 존재한다. 인간과 자연질서가 통일적으로 융합되어야 한다는 신비로운 사상은 중국사상의 고유한 특징이며 도가가 특히 이 이론을 정교하게 다듬었다.



iii) Return to the Tao.

The law of the Tao as natural order refers to the continuous reversion of everything to its starting point. Anything that develops extreme qualities will invariably revert to the opposite qualities: "Reversion is the movement of the Tao" (Lao-tzu). All being issues from the Tao and ineluctably returns to it; Undifferentiated Unity becomes multiplicity in the movement of the Tao. Life and death are contained in this eternal transformation from Non-Being into Being and back to Non-Being, but the underlying primordial unity is never lost. (see also  time, cyclicism, pluralism)

 ③ 도에로의 복귀 : 

자연질서로서 도의 법칙이란 이 세상의 모든 것이 자신이 애초에 시작한 시점으로 계속 복귀하는 것을 의미한다. 휘어지면 온전하게 되고 굽으면 곧게 되고 움푹 패이면 꽉 차게 되고 낡으면 새롭게 되고…… 등등은 모두 "되돌아오는 것은 도의 움직임이다"(反者道之動)라는 법칙에서 나온 말이다. 삶과 죽음은 영원의 관점에서 보면 '무'에서 '유'로, 다시 '무'로 반복되는 영원한 변화 속에 놓여 있지만 그 기초가 되는 최초의 합일성은 상실되지 않는다.

For society, any reform means a type of return to the remote past; civilization is considered a degradation of the natural order, and the ideal is the return to an original purity. For the individual, wisdom is to conform to the rhythm of the universe. The Taoist mystic, however, not only adapts himself ritually and physiologically to the alternations of nature but creates a void inside himself that permits him to return to nature's origin. Lao-tzu, in trance, "wandered freely in the origin of all beings." Thus, in ecstasy he escaped the rhythm of life and death by contemplating the universal return. "Having attained perfect emptiness, holding fast to stillness, I can watch the return of the ever active Ten Thousand Beings." The number 10,000 symbolizes totality. (see also  mysticism)

iv) Change and transformation.

All parts of the universe are attuned in a rhythmical pulsation. Nothing is static; all beings are subjected to periodical mutations and transformations that represent the Chinese view of creation. Instead of being opposed with a static ideal, change itself is systematized and made intelligible, as in the theory of the five phases (wu-hsing) and in the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching (Classic of Changes), which are basic recurrent constellations in the general flux. An unchanging unity (the permanent Tao) was seen as underlying the kaleidoscopic plurality. (see also  creation myth)

 ④ 발전과 분화 : 

〈주역 周易〉의 5행(五行)과 64괘의 이론에 따르면 변화 자체는 어떤 체계를 가지고 일어나며 또한 지성으로 이해할 수 있다. 창조에 대한 장자의 생각은 도공과 장인의 활동, 즉 '형성시키고 변화시키는 것'(造化)과 같은 것이었다. 이것은 동일한 과정의 두 국면이다. 즉 미지의 도가 태초의 혼돈으로부터 계속적으로 우주를 형성시킨다. 그리고 음(陰)과 양(陽)의 반복에 따른 우주의 영원한 변화(밤과 낮, 겨울과 여름 같은 것)는 동일한 도의 바깥면에 지나지 않는다.

Chuang-tzu's image for creation was that of the activity of the potter and the bronze caster: "to shape and to transform" (tsao hua). These are two phases of the same process: the imperceptible Tao shapes the universe continuously out of primordial chaos; the perpetual transformation of the universe by the alternations of Yin and Yang, or complementary energies (seen as night and day or as winter and summer), is nothing but the external aspect of the same Tao. The shaping of the Ten Thousand Beings by the Supreme Unity and their transformation by Yin and Yang are both simultaneous and perpetual. Thus, the saint's ecstatic union is a "moving together with the Tao; dispersing and concentrating, his appearance has no consistency." United with the permanent Tao, the saint's outer aspect becomes one of ungraspable change. Because the gods can become perceptible only by adapting to the mode of this changing world, their apparitions are "transformations" (pien-hua); and the magician (hua-jen) is believed to be one who transforms rather than one who conjures out of nothing.

2) Concepts of man and society.

i) Wu-wei.

The power acquired by the Taoist is te, the efficacy of the Tao in the realm of Being, which is translated as "virtue." Lao-tsu viewed it, however, as different from Confucian virtue:

인간과 사회에 대한 개념

① 무위 : 무위는 아무 것도 하지 않는 것을 의미하지는 않는다. 그것은 단지 과장하지 않음을 뜻한다. 무위는 억지로 하지 않고 인공의 힘을 가하지 않은 자연스런 행위를 뜻한다. "완전한 행위란 그뒤에 흔적을 남기지 않는다." 모든 자연의 과정에서 인위적인 것이 끼어들게 되면 그것은 항상 의도했던 것과는 정반대로 되거나 실패로 끝날 것이기 때문에 무위 없이는 진정한 성공이란 있을 수 없다. 


The man of superior virtue is not virtuous, and that is why he has virtue. The man of inferior [Confucian] virtue never strays from virtue, and that is why he has no virtue.

The "superior virtue" of Taoism is a latent power that never lays claim to its achievements; it is the "mysterious power" (hsüan te) of Tao present in the heart of the sage--"the man of superior virtue never acts (wu-wei), and yet there is nothing he leaves undone."

Wu-wei is not an ideal of absolute inaction nor a mere "not-overdoing." It is an action so well in accordance with things that its author leaves no trace of himself in his work: "Perfect activity leaves no track behind it; perfect speech is like a jade worker whose tool leaves no mark." It is the Tao that "never acts, yet there is nothing it does not do." There is no true achievement without wu-wei because every deliberate intervention in the natural course of things will sooner or later turn into the opposite of what was intended and will result in failure.

The sage who practices wu-wei lives out of his original nature before it was tampered with by knowledge and restricted by morality; he has reverted to infancy (that is, the undiminished vitality of the newborn state); he has "returned to the state of the Uncarved Block (p'u)." P'u is uncut, unpainted wood, simplicity. Society carves this wood into specific shapes for its own use and thus robs the individual piece of its original totality. "Once the uncarved block is carved, it forms utensils (that is, instruments of government); but when the Sage uses it, he would be fit to become Chief of all Ministers. This is why the great craftsman (ruler) does not carve (rule)."

ii) The social ideal of primitivism.

Any willful human intervention is believed to be able to ruin the harmony of the natural transformation process. The spontaneous rhythm of the primitive agrarian community and its un-self-conscious symbiosis with nature's cycles is thus the Taoist ideal of society.

② 도가 원시사상의 사회적 이상 : 초기의 도가사상에서는 계획적인 인간의 간섭은 자연의 변화과정의 조화를 깨뜨리게 된다고 믿었다. 원시농경사회의 자연적인 리듬과 자연의 커다란 움직임 속에서 사심없이 공동체생활을 영위하는 것이 도가가 이상으로 여기는 사회이다. 장자는 유가에 의해 찬양되는 문화영웅이나 문화·제도의 창시자, 사회의 의식과 규범을 만든 성현들까지도 비난했다. 심지어는 '지식욕'까지도 그것이 경쟁심을 자아내고 물욕을 자아내어 분쟁을 일으킨다고 하며 비판했다.

In the ideal society there are no books; the Lao-tzu (Tao-te Ching) itself would not have been written but for the entreaty of the guardian of the pass Yin Hsi, who asked the "Old Master" to write down his thoughts. In the Golden Age, past or future, knotted cords are the only form of records. The people of this age are "dull and unwitting, they have no desire; this is called uncarved simplicity. In uncarved simplicity the people attain their true nature." (see also  primitivism)

Chuang-tzu liked to oppose the Heaven-made and the man-made; that is, nature and society. He wanted man to renounce all artificial "cunning contrivances" that facilitate his work but lead to "cunning hearts" and agitated souls in which the Tao will not dwell. Man should equally renounce all concepts of measure, law, and virtue. "Fashion pecks and bushels for people to measure by and they will steal by peck and bushel." He blamed not only the culture heroes and inventors praised by the Confucians but also the sages who shaped the rites and rules of society.

That the unwrought substance was blighted in order to fashion implements--this was the crime of the artisan. That the Way (Tao) and its Virtue (te) were destroyed in order to create benevolence and righteousness--this was the fault of the sage.

Even "coveting knowledge" is condemned because it engenders competition and "fight to the death over profit."

iii) Ideas of knowledge and language.

Characteristic of Chuang-tzu are his ideas of knowledge and language developed under the stimulus of his friend and opponent, the philosopher Hui Shih. (see also  epistemology)

 ③ 지식과 언어에 대한 사상 : 

장자는 중국의 논리학자인 혜시(惠施)로부터 자극을 받아 그의 지식과 언어에 대한 사상을 발전시켰다. 


Because, in the Taoist view, all beings and everything are fundamentally one, opposing opinions can arise only when people lose sight of the Whole and regard their partial truths as absolute. They are then like the frog at the bottom of the well who takes the bit of brightness he sees for the whole sky. The closed systems--i.e., the passions and prejudices into which petty minds shut themselves--hide the Tao, the "Supreme Master" who resides inside themselves and is superior to all distinctions.

도가의 관점에서 모든 존재와 만물은 근본적으로 하나이기 때문에 의견대립이라는 것은 사람들이 전체적인 시야를 갖지 못하고 부분적인 진리를 절대적으로 간주할 때만 일어난다. 따라서 장자가 생각하는 성인(聖人)은 선과 악, 진리와 거짓 등과 같은 관념의 상대성을 완전히 인지한 사람이다. "그대가 변론(辯論)할 때면 그대가 보지 못하는 어떤 것이 있다.가장 위대한 도는 어떠한 이름도 갖지 않는다. 그리고 가장 훌륭 한 변론에서는 어떠한 것도 말해지지 않는다."

Thus, Chuang-tzu's holy man fully recognizes the relativity of notions like good and evil and true and false. He is neutral and open to the extent that he offers no active resistance to any would-be opponent, whether it be a person or an idea. "When you argue, there are some things you are failing to see. In the greatest Tao nothing is named; in the greatest disputation, nothing is said."

The person who wants to know the Tao is told: "Don't meditate, don't cogitate . . . . Follow no school, follow no way, and then you will attain the Tao"; discard knowledge, forget distinctions, reach no-knowledge. "Forget" indicates that distinctions had to be known first. The original ignorance of the child is distinguished from the no-knowledge of the sage who can "sit in forgetfulness."

The mystic does not speak because declaring unity, by creating the duality of the speaker and the affirmation, destroys it. Those who speak about the Tao (like Chuang-tzu himself) are "wholly wrong. For he who knows does not speak; he who speaks does not know." Chuang-tzu was aware of the fact that, in speaking about it, he could do no more than hint at the way toward the all-embracing and intuitive knowledge.

iv) Identity of life and death.

Mystic realization does away with the distinction between the self and the world. This idea also governs Chuang-tzu's attitude toward death. Life and death are but one of the pairs of cyclical phases, such as day and night or summer and winter. "Since life and death are each other's companions, why worry about them? All beings are one." Life and death are not in opposition but merely two aspects of the same reality, arrested moments out of the flux of the universal mutations of everything into everything. Man is no exception; "he goes back into the great weaving machine: thus all beings issue from the Loom and return to the Loom."

 ④ 삶과 죽음의 동일성 : 

신비로운 깨달음은 자아와 세계 사이의 구분을 없앤다. 이러한 사상은 죽음에 대한 장자의 태도를 규정지었다. 삶과 죽음은 단지 낮과 밤, 여름과 겨울처럼 쌍으로 이루어져 있는 주기적인 단계의 하나에 불과하다. 인간 자체도 예외가 아니다. "인간은 거대한 베틀로 되돌아간다. 따라서 모든 존재는 베틀에서 나와 베틀로 돌아간다." 일상적인 지(知)의 분별을 잊은 망(忘)의 상태에서 본다면 생시의 장자와 꿈에서 나비가 된 장자를 구분하기 어려운 것처럼 생과 사를 구분하기 어렵다.


Viewed from the single reality experienced in ecstasy, it is just as difficult to distinguish life from death as it is to distinguish the waking Chuang-tzu from the dreaming butterfly. Death is natural, and men ought neither to fear nor to desire it. Chuang-tzu's attitude thus is one of serene acceptance. (see also  religious experience)

v) Religious goals of the individual.

The Confucian saint (sheng) is viewed as a ruler of antiquity or a great sage who taught men how to return to the rites of antiquity. The Taoist sainthood, however, is internal (nei sheng), although it can become manifest in an external royalty (wai wang) that brings the world back to the Way by means of quietism: variously called "non-intervention" (wu-wei), "inner cultivation" (nei yeh), or "art of the heart and mind" (hsin-shu).

 ⑤ 인간의 종교적 목표 : 

유교에서 성인(聖人)은 고대의 의례를 회복하는 길을 가르친 사람을 말한다. 그러나 도가의 성인개념이 정적주의(靜寂主義)를 통해서 세상을 도의 길로 인도하는 외왕(外王)에 의해 분명해질 수 있다고 하더라도 도가에서의 성인은 내성(內聖)이다.



Whereas worldly ambitions, riches, and (especially) discursive knowledge scatter the person and drain his energies, the saint "embraces Unity" or "holds fast to the One" (pao i); that is, he aspires to union with the Tao in a primordial undivided state underlying consciousness. "Embracing Unity" also means that he maintains the balance of Yin and Yang within himself and the union of his spiritual (hun) and vegetative (p'o) souls, the dispersion of which spells death; Taoists usually believed there were three hun and seven p'o. The spiritual soul tends to wander (in dreams), and any passion or desire can result in loss of soul. To retain and harmonize one's souls is important for physical life as well as for the unification of the whole human entity. Cleansed of every distraction, the saint creates inside himself a void that in reality is plenitude. Empty of all impurity, he is full of the original energy (yüan ch'i), which is the principle of life that in the ordinary man decays from the moment of birth on.

 보통사람은 세속적인 탐욕과 부, 특히 일상적인 지(知)에 의해 흐트러지고 자신의 힘을 마르게 하지만 성인은 "통일성을 파악하고", "하나를 굳게 잡는다"(抱一). 즉 성인은 의식의 기초를 이루는 태초의 혼돈상태의 도를 가지고 통일성을 희구한다. '통일성의 파악'은 또한 자기 자신 내부의 음양의 조화를 유지하고 혼(魂)과 백(魄)을 일치시키는 것을 의미한다. 인간의 혼백을 보존하고 조화시키는 것은 육체적인 생활을 위해서와 똑같이 인간의 실재 전체를 통일시키기 위해서도 중요한 일이다. 옛 도가의 진인(眞人)들은 오랜 삶을 통해 스스로를 함양함으로써 성인이 되었다. 그들의 장수(長壽) 자체야말로 그들의 성인다움과 도와의 일치를 증명하는 것이다. 오묘한 성찰 속에서 장자는 육체적인 수행을 통해 장수와 불사를 얻으려고 하는 사람들을 혐오했다. 그렇지만 육체적 불사는 도교 신비주의가 전개됨에 따라, 그리고 이전부터 오랫동안 도가의 목표였다.

Because vital energy and spirituality are not clearly distinguished, old age in itself becomes a proof of sainthood. The aged Taoist sage became a saint because he had been able to cultivate himself throughout a long existence; his longevity in itself was the proof of his saintliness and union with the Tao. Externally he had a healthy, flourishing appearance and inside he contained an ever-flowing source of energy that manifested itself in radiance and in a powerful, beneficial influence on his surroundings, which is the charismatic efficacy (te) of the Tao.

The mystic insight of Chuang-tzu made him scorn those who strove for longevity and immortality through physiological practices. Nevertheless, physical immortality was a Taoist goal probably long before and alongside the unfolding of Taoist mysticism. The adept of immortality had a choice among many methods that were all intended to restore the pure energies possessed at birth by the infant whose perfect vital force Lao-tzu admired. Through these methods, the adept became an immortal (hsien) who lived 1,000 years in this world if he so chose and, once satiated with life, "ascended to heaven in broad daylight." This was the final apotheosis of the Taoist who had transformed his body into pure Yang energy.

Chuang-tzu's descriptions of the indescribable Tao, as well as of those who have attained union with the Tao, are invariably poetic. The perfect man has identified his life rhythm so completely with the rhythm of the forces of nature that he has become indistinguishable from them and shares their immortality and infinity, which is above the cycle of ordinary life and death. He is "pure spirit. He feels neither the heat of the brushlands afire nor the cold of the waters in flood"; nothing can startle or frighten him. Not that he is magically invulnerable (as the adepts of physical immortality would have it), but he is "so cautious in shunning and approaching, that nothing can do him injury." (see also  perfection)

"A man like this rides the clouds as his carriages and the sun and moon as his steeds." The theme of the spiritual wandering (yüan yu), which can be traced back to the shamanistic soul journey, crops up wherever Chuang-tzu speaks of the perfect man.

Those who let themselves be borne away by the unadulterated energies of Heaven and Earth and can harness the six composite energies to roam through the limitless, whatever need they henceforth depend on?

These wanderings are journeys within oneself; they are roamings through the Infinite in ecstasy. Transcending the ordinary distinctions of things and one with the Tao, "the Perfect Man has no self, the Holy Man has no merit, the Sage has no fame." He lives inconspicuously among men, and whatever applies to the Tao applies to him.

vi) Symbolism and mythology.

Taoists prefer to convey their ecstatic insights in images and parables. The Tao is low and receiving as a valley, soft and life-giving as water, and it is the "mysterious female," the source of all life, the Mother of the Ten Thousand Beings. Man should become weak and yielding as water that overcomes the hard and the strong and always takes the low ground; he should develop his male and female sides but "prefer femininity," "feed on the mother," and find within himself the well that never runs dry. Tao is also the axis, the ridgepole, the pivot, and the empty centre of the hub. The sage is the "useless tree" or the huge gourd too large to be fashioned into implements. A frequent metaphor for the working of the Tao is the incommunicable ability to be skillful at a craft. The skilled artisan does not ponder on his action, but, in union with the Tao of his subject, he does his work reflexively and without conscious intent.

 ⑥ 상징주의와 신화 :

 도가들은 그들의 좌망(坐忘) 상태에서의 통찰력을 상징과 우화를 사용해 표현했다. 예를 들면 도는 골짜기와 같이 낮으며 수동적이고, 물과 같이 유연하며 생명력을 주는 것이다. 도는 모든 생명의 근원이요, 만물의 어머니이며, 신비에 싸인 듯한 여성과 같은 것이다. 또한 수레의 축이며, 들보이고, 바퀴의 비어 있는 중심이라고 했다.

많은 고대 중국의 신화는 도가에 의해 보존되었는데 그들은 도가의 사상을 예시하기 위해 신화를 끌어들였다. 신비로운 낙원, 구름을 타고 다니는 여행, 날아다니는 용에 대한 꿈은 혼백의 방황, 도의 깨달음, 꿈과 현실의 동일성에 대한 은유이다.

Much ancient Chinese mythology has been preserved by the Taoists, who drew on it to illustrate their views. A chaos (hun-tun) myth is recorded as a metaphor for the undifferentiated primal unity; the mythical emperors (Huang Ti and others) are extolled for wise Taoist rule or blamed for introducing harmful civilization. Dreams of mythical paradises and journeys on clouds and flying dragons are metaphors for the wanderings of the soul, the attainment of the Tao, and the identity of dream and reality. (see also  Chinese literature)

Taoists have transformed and adapted some ancient myths to their beliefs. Thus, the Queen Mother of the West (Hsi Wang Mu), who was a mountain spirit, pestilence goddess, and tigress, became a high deity--the Fairy Queen of all immortals.

3) Early eclectic contributions.

i) The idea of Yin and Yang.

Yin and Yang literally mean "dark side" and "sunny side" of a hill. They are mentioned for the first time in the Hsi tz'u, or "Appended Explanations" (c. 4th century BC), an appendix to the I Ching (Classic of Changes): "One [time] Yin, one [time] Yang, this is the Tao." Yin and Yang are two complementary, interdependent principles or phases alternating in space and time; they are emblems evoking the harmonious interplay of all pairs of opposites in the universe. (see also  dualism)

초기의 이론적 절충

① 음·양과 기(氣)의 사상 : 

음과 양은 모든 중국철학의 공통된 줄기이다(→ 색인 : 음양오행설). 음과 양은 공간과 시간 속에서 교대로 일어나는 상호보완적이고 상호의존적인 2개의 원리 또는 국면이다. 음·양은 우주의 모든 대립쌍의 조화로운 상호작용을 일으키는 상징이다. 음·양의 변화와 상호작용은 만물을 생성시키는 것이다. 음과 양은 자주 2개의 '기'라는 표현으로 쓰인다. 모든 인간은 태어날 때부터 자신에게 부여된 원초적인 생명력의 한 부분인 '기'를 갖고 있다. 사람이 할 일은 그에게 주어진 생애를 모두 마치기 위해 '기'를 강하게 하고 다스리며 키워나갈 수 있도록 분별있는 생활을 해 '기'를 해치지 않는 것이다.음양(陰陽家)와 관련해 또다른 중요한 개념으로는 오행과 오덕(五德)이 있다.


First conceived by musicians, astronomers, or diviners and then propagated by a school that came to be named after them, Yin and Yang became the common stock of all Chinese philosophy. The Taoist treatise Huai-nan-tzu (book of "Master Huai-nan") describes how the one "Primordial Breath" (yüan ch'i) split into the light ethereal Yang breath, which formed Heaven; and the heavier, cruder Yin breath, which formed Earth. The diversifications and interactions of Yin and Yang produced the Ten Thousand Beings.

The warm breath of Yang accumulated to produce fire, the essence of which formed the sun. The cold breath of Yin accumulated to produce water, the essence of which became the moon.

ii) The idea of ch'i.

Yin and Yang are often referred to as two "breaths" (ch'i). Ch'i means air, breath, or vapour--originally the vapour arising from cooking cereals. It also came to mean a cosmic energy. The Primordial Breath is a name of the chaos (state of Unity) in which the original life force is not yet diversified into the phases that the concepts Yin and Yang describe.

Every man has a portion of this primordial life-force allotted to him at birth, and his task is not to dissipate it through the activity of his senses but to strengthen, control, and increase it in order to live out his full span of life.

iii) The idea of wu-hsing.

Another important set of notions associated with the same school of Yin-Yang are the "five agents" or "phases" (wu-hsing) or "powers" (wu-te): water, fire, wood, metal, earth. They are also "breaths" (i.e., active energies), the idea of which enabled the philosophers to construct a coherent system of correspondences and participations linking all phenomena of the macrocosm and the microcosm. Associated with spatial directions, seasons of the year, colours, musical notes, animals, and other aspects of nature, they also correspond, in the human body, to the five inner organs. The Taoist techniques of longevity are grounded in these correspondences. The idea behind such techniques was that of nourishing the inner organs with the essences corresponding to their respective phases and during the season dominated by the latter.

iv) Yang Chu and the Lieh-tzu.

Yang Chu (c. 400 BC) is representative of the early pre-Taoist recluses, "those who hid themselves" (yin-shih), who, in the Analects of Confucius, ridiculed Confucius' zeal to improve society. Yang Chu held that each individual should value his own life above all else, despise wealth and power, and not agree to sacrifice even a single hair of his head to benefit the whole world. The scattered sayings of Yang Chu in pre-Han texts are much less hedonistic than his doctrine as it is presented in the Lieh-tzu (book of "Master Lieh").

 ② 양주(楊朱)와 열자(列子) : 

양주(BC 400경)는 '사회를 개선하려는 공자의 열정을 비웃은' 초기 도가 운둔자들 가운데 대표적 인물이다. 양주는 모든 사람은 어떤 무엇보다도 자기 자신의 생명을 중요시해야 한다고 주장하고 세상을 다 준다 하더라도 자기의 머리카락 한 올도 희생할 수 없다고 했다. 이러한 사상은 〈열자〉에 잘 나타나 있다. 열자는 많은 고대전설 속에서 영혼의 여행을 했다고 하는 유명한 인물로 나오며 자연의 변화와 인간의 활동작용 전체를 기계론적으로 파악한 철학자였다.

Lieh-tzu was a legendary Taoist master whom Chuang-tzu described as being able to "ride the wind and go soaring around with cool and breezy skill." In many old legends Lieh-tzu is the paragon of the spiritual traveller. The text named after him (of uncertain date) presents a philosophy that views natural changes and human activities as wholly mechanistic in their operation; neither human effort nor divine destiny can change the course of things.

v) Kuan-tzu and Huai-nan-tzu.

In the several Taoist chapters of the Kuan-tzu (book of "Master Kuan"), another text of uncertain date, emphasis is placed on "the art of the heart (mind)"; the heart governs the body as the chief governs the state. If the organs and senses submit to it, the heart can achieve a desirelessness and emptiness that make it a pure receptacle of the "heart inside the heart," a new soul that is the indwelling Tao.

 ③ 관자(管子)와 회남자(淮南子) : 

도교의 색채가 들어 있는 〈관자〉의 몇몇 부분은 '심술'(心術)에 대한 강조가 나타나 있다. 군주가 나라를 다스리듯이 '심'은 육체를 다스린다. 〈회남자〉는 그당시까지에서 가장 정교한 우주철학, 즉 대우주 속의 인간의 위치, 사회 질서, 인간의 '성인다움'을 지향한 이상에 대해 논했다.

The Huai-nan-tzu is a compilation of essays written by different learned magicians (fang-shih) at the court of their patron, the Prince of Huai-nan. Although lacking in unity, it is a compendium of the knowledge of the time that had been neglected by the less speculative scholars of the new state Confucianism. The Huai-nan-tzu discusses the most elaborate cosmology up to that time, the position of man in the macrocosm, the ordering of society, and the ideal of personal sainthood.


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