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철학 - 지혜의 탐구

V. Bibliography



1. General works.

MAX KALTENMARK, Lao Tzu and Taoism (1969; originally published in French, 1965), is a good general introduction to Taoist philosophy and religion. Other studies include MARCEL GRANET, La Pensée chinoise (1934, reissued 1988), the classic work on the basic systems of classification in Chinese thought--difficult but highly enlightening; HOLMES WELCH, The Parting of the Way: Lao Tzu and the Taoist Movement (1957, reissued 1966), a readable interpretation of the Tao-te Ching and an account of the Taoist movement; HERRLEE G. CREEL, What Is Taoism? (1970, reprinted 1982), eight essays on Taoist thought; HENRI MASPERO, Taoism and Chinese Religion (1981; originally published in French, 1971), a classic pioneer work on religious Taoism; and C. BELL, "In Search of the Tao in Taoism: New Questions of Unity and Multiplicity," History of Religions, 33:187-201 (November 1993).

2. Texts.

ARTHUR WALEY, The Way and Its Power (1934, reissued 1977), is a classic translation of the Tao-te Ching preceded by a good introduction on its place in Chinese thought. A contemporary liberal translation in a topical arrangement is MICHAEL LAFARGUE (trans. and ed.), The Tao of the Tao Te Ching (1992). The texts of the Shih-chi concerning Lao-tzu have been translated and thoroughly discussed in a debate between H.H. DUBS and DERK BODDE in Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 61 (1941), 62 (1942), and 64 (1944). A very readable translation of the most important and most difficult text of Taoist mysticism is found in BURTON WATSON (trans.), The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu (1968). A.C. GRAHAM (trans.), The Book of Lieh-tzu (1960, reissued 1990), provides a good translation and introduction to Taoist mysticism. MAX KALTENMARK, Le Lie-sien tchouan (1953, reprinted 1987), a translation of the earliest extant Taoist hagiography, contains much information on mythology hidden in long notes. KRISTOFER MARINUS SCHIPPER, L'Empereur Wou des Han dans la légende taoiste (1965), includes a translation of a Taoist hagiographic novel and a study of its ritual background in the Mao Shan sect. An imperfect but complete translation of probably the most important text of religious Taoism is found in JAMES R. WARE (trans. and ed.), Alchemy, Medicine, and Religion in the China of A.D. 320: The Nei P'ien of Ko Hung (1966, reissued 1981). NATHAN SIVIN, Chinese Alchemy: Preliminary Studies (1968), is an annotated translation of a treatise by a 6th-century alchemist--a most scholarly introduction on the study of Chinese alchemy.

3. History.

Taoist speculation and mysticism are discussed in FUNG YU-LAN (YU-LAN FENG), A History of Chinese Philosophy, trans. from Chinese by DERK BODDE, 2 vol. (1937, reissued 1983), a standard reference work on the classical period of Chinese thought; ARTHUR WALEY, Three Ways of Thought in Ancient China (1939, reprinted 1982), the Chuang-tzu studied in relation to the thought of its time; JOSEPH NEEDHAM and WANG LING, "The Tao Chia (Taoists) and Taoism," Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 2, chapter 10 (1956, reissued 1991), a highly lucid exposé of early Taoist speculation and later Taoist technology; A.C. GRAHAM, Disputers of the Tao (1989), researching the period 500-200 BC; and LIVIA KOHN, Early Chinese Mysticism: Philosophy and Soteriology in the Taoist Tradition (1992), which includes a glossary and excellent bibliography.

Tao legends are treated in HENRI DORÉ, Lao-tse et le taoïsme (1938, reprinted 1981), not very scientific but with much information; and ANNA K. SEIDEL, "The Image of the Perfect Ruler in Early Taoist Messianism: Lao-tzu and Li Hung," History of Religions, 9:216-247 (1969-70).

The history of Taoist religion is examined in ANNA K. SEIDEL, La Divinisation de Lao tseu dans le Taoisme des Han (1969), an excellent detailed study of the formation of the Taoist system in the early Imperial period; ÉDOUARD CHAVANNES, Le Jet des dragons (1916), a classic study and translation of a Taoist liturgy dating from the end of the T'ang dynasty; CHARLES D. BENN, The Cavern-Mystery Transmission: A Taoist Ordination Rite of A.D. 711 (1991), a scholarly milestone in understanding Taoist liturgy; ARTHUR WALEY, The Poetry and Career of Li Po, 701-762 A.D. (1950, reissued 1979), the life of the Taoist poet; ARTHUR WALEY (trans. and ed.), The Travels of an Alchemist (1931, reprinted 1963), the account of the Central Asian journey of the second patriarch of the Ch'üan-chen sect; and J.J.M. De GROOT, Jaarlijksche feesten en gebruiken van de Emoy-Chineezen (1880), also available in a French translation, Les Fêtes annuellement célébrées â Émoui (Amoy), 2 vol. (1886, reprinted 1981), and The Religious System of China, vol. 6 (1910, reprinted 1989), both valuable pioneering descriptions of the Taoist priesthood and popular exorcists in Fukien at the end of the 19th century.

Other aspects of Taoism are explored in History of Religions, vol. 9, no. 2 (November 1969) and no. 3 (February 1970), issues devoted to the reports from the First International Conference on Taoist Studies, including papers on the conference discussions, on Chuang-tzu, on Neo-Taoism, on Taoist antecedents in Buddhist thought, and on Taoist messianism; R.G.H. SIU, Ch`i: A Neo-Taoist Approach to Life (1974), a presentation of the Taoist philosophy of time; MICHAEL SASO, The Teachings of Taoist Master Chuang (1978), a discussion of contemporary liturgical Taoism; HOLMES WELCH and ANNA K. SEIDEL (eds.), Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religion (1979), studies of religious Taoism from the Second International Conference on Taoist Studies; TOSHIHIKO IZUTSU, Sufism and Taoism: A Comparative Study of Key Philosophical Concepts (1984); JOHN LAGERWEY, Taoist Ritual in Chinese Society and History (1987); and LIVIA KOHN and YOSHINOBU SAKADE (eds.), Taoist Meditation and Longevity Techniques (1989), articles explaining everyday practices on this seldom-treated subject. ( A.K.Se./M.St./Ed.)

  • 도가와 도교
    • 노자와 도교 : M. 칼텐마르크, 장원철 역, 까치, 1993
    • 도가사상과 중국문명 : 葛榮晉 외, 葛榮晉 외, 예문서원, 1993
    • 도교 : H. G. 크릴, 김용수 역, 예문서원, 1993
    • 도교와 신선의 세계 : 窪德忠, 정순일 역, 법인문화사, 1993
    • 노자철학의 연구 : 김진배, 사사연, 1991
    • 도교와 과학 : 도교와 과학, 비봉출판사, 1990
    • 도교란 무엇인가(종교문화연구원 종교학총서 1) : 酒井忠夫 외, 최준식 역, 민음사, 1990
    • 도교사(종교학총서 3) : 窪德忠, 최준식 역, 분도출판사, 1990
    • 유교와 도교 : M. 베버, 이상률 역, 문예출판사, 1990
    • 노자와 도가사상 : 김학주, 명문당, 1988
    • 도가사상의 연구 : 이강수, 고려대학교 민족문화연구소, 1984
    • 도가의 사상 〈아시아학보〉 4 : 차주환, 아세아학술연구회, 1967
    • 道敎答問 : 朱越利, 華文出版社, 1989
    • 中國道敎史 全1 : 卿希泰 主編, 四川人民出版社, 1988
    • 道敎硏究論文集 : 黃兆漢, 中文大學出版社, 1987
    • 神仙思想の硏究 (津田左右吉全集10所收) : 津田左右吉, 岩波書店, 1964
    • Le Taoisme et les religions chinoises, rev. ed. : H. Maspero, 1971
    • The Parting of the WayLaoTzu and the Taoist Movement : H. Welch, 1957
    • Three Ways of Thought in Ancient China : Arthur Waley, 1939
  • 한국의 도교

    • 도교사상의 한국적 전개(한국도교사상연구총서 3) : 한국도교사상연구회 편, 아시아문화사, 1989
    • 조선도교사 : 이능화 편술, 이종은 역주, 보성문화사, 1977


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