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Religion

종교 탐방

III. Historical development

 역사적 발전

 

 

1. INDIA

 

인도

1) Expansion of Buddhism.

The Buddha was a charismatic leader who discovered and proclaimed a religious message and founded a distinctive religious community. Some of the members of that community were, like the Buddha himself, wandering ascetics. Others were laypersons who venerated the Buddha, followed those aspects of his teachings that were relevant to them, and provided the wandering ascetics with the material support that they required.

During the first several centuries after the Buddha's death, the story of his life was remembered and embellished, his teachings were preserved and developed, and the community that he had established became a significant religious force. Many of the followers of the Buddha who were wandering ascetics began to settle in permanent monastic establishments and to develop the procedures needed to maintain large monastic institutions. At the same time, the Buddhist laity came to include important members of the economic and political elite.

During the first century of its existence Buddhism spread from its place of origin in Magadha and Kosala throughout much of northern India, including the areas of Mathura and Ujjayani in the west. According to the Buddhist tradition, invitations to the Council of Vesali (Sanskrit: Vaishali), held just over a century after the Buddha's death, were sent to monks living in many distant places throughout northern and central India. By the middle of the 3rd century BC, Buddhism had gained the favour of a Mauryan king who had established an empire that extended from the Himalayas in the north almost as far south as Sri Lanka. (see also Index: Mauryan empire)

To the rulers of the kingdoms and republics arising in northeastern India, the patronage of heteroprax sects (those with differing practices) was one way of counterbalancing the enormous political power enjoyed by Brahmans (high-caste Hindus) in the affairs of state. The first Mauryan emperor, Candra Gupta (c. 321-c. 297 BC), patronized Jainism and finally became a Jaina monk. His grandson, Ashoka, who ruled over the greater part of the subcontinent from about 270 to 230 BC, became the archetypal Buddhist king. Ashoka attempted to establish in his realm a "true dhamma" based on the virtues of self-control, impartiality, cheerfulness, truthfulness, and goodness. Though he did not found a state church, he did attempt to forge a Buddhist-oriented religiopolitical culture that would include Hindu, Jaina, Ajivika (Ajivaka), and Buddhist alike. His aim was to create a religious and social milieu that would enable all "children of the king" to live happily and attain heaven in the next life. Thus, he created a "welfare state" by setting up medical assistance for men and beasts, maintaining reservoirs and canals, and promoting trade. A system of dhamma officers ( dhamma- mahamattas) was set up to provide for the empire magistrates, district attorneys, preachers, bureaucrats, social workers, and spies. The lay ethic preached by the king of the dhamma (dhamma-raja) and his officers was focused on the layman's obligations in this world. Though Ashoka created a new ideal of kingship that would have powerful repercussions throughout the later Buddhist world, the various problems posed by a state of such vast dimensions in India proved greater than he could solve. Soon after Ashoka's death, the Mauryan empire began to crumble. (see also Index: dhamma-mahamatta)

Although Buddhists seem to have suffered some persecutions during the subsequent Shunga-Kanva period (185-28 BC), Buddhism succeeded in maintaining and even expanding its influence. Buddhist monastic centres and magnificent Buddhist monuments such as the great stupas at Bharhut and Sañchi were established throughout the subcontinent, and these institutions often received royal patronage. In the early centuries of the Common era, Buddhism was especially flourishing in northwestern India, and from there it spread rapidly into Central Asia and China.

2) Buddhism under the Guptas and Palas.

By the time of the Gupta dynasty (c. AD 320-c. 600), Buddhism in India was being affected by the revival of Brahmanic religion and the rising tide of bhakti (a devotional movement that emphasized the intense love of a devotee for a personal god). During this period, for example, some Hindus were practicing devotion to the Buddha, whom they regarded as an avatar (incarnation) of the Hindu deity Vishnu. (see also Index: Hinduism)

During the Gupta period some monasteries joined together to form monastic centres ( mahaviharas) that functioned as universities. The most famous of these, located at Nalanda, had a curriculum that went far beyond the bounds of traditional Buddhism. Nalanda soon became the leading centre for the study of Mahayana, which was rapidly becoming the dominant Buddhist tradition in India.

Though Buddhist institutions seemed to be faring well under the Guptas, various Chinese pilgrims visiting India between AD 400 and 700 could discern an internal decline in the Buddhist community and the beginning of the reabsorption of Indian Buddhism by Hinduism. Among these pilgrims were Fa-hsien, Sung Yün, Hui-sheng, Hsüan-tsang, and I-ching.

The accounts of these Chinese travelers provide invaluable information about Asian cultures from the Sasanian (Persian) empire in the west to Sumatra and Java in the east, and from Turfan in Central Asia to Kañchi in the south of India. In 399 Fa-hsien left China, crossed the Gobi (Desert), and visited various holy places in India. He then returned to China via Sri Lanka and Java, taking with him numerous Buddhist scriptures and statues. The most famous of the Chinese travelers was the 7th-century monk Hsüan-tsang. When he arrived in northwestern India, he found "millions of monasteries" reduced to ruins by the Huns, a nomadic Central Asian people. Many of the remaining Buddhists were developing their own form of Tantrism, an esoteric psychic-physical system of belief and practice. In the northeast, Hsüan-tsang visited various holy places and studied Yogacara, a Mahayana system, and Indian philosophy at Nalanda. After visiting Assam and southern India he returned to China with some 600 sutras.

After the destruction of numerous Buddhist monasteries in the 6th century AD by the Huns, Buddhism revived, especially in the northeast, where it flourished for a time under the Buddhist Pala kings (8th-12th century AD). These kings continued to protect the great monastic establishments (mahaviharas), building such new centres as Odantapuri, near Nalanda, and establishing a system of supervision for all such institutions. Under the Palas, Tantric Buddhism (i.e., Vajrayana) became the dominant sect. Adepts of this sect, called siddhas, identified nirvana with the passions, maintaining that one could "touch the deathless element with his body." Though some of its practices seemed excessive, scholars of this school sought to revalorize some of the most archaic elements in Indian religion. During this period, the university of Nalanda became a centre for the study of Tantric Buddhism and the practice of Tantric magic and rituals. Under the Pala kings, contacts with China decreased as Indians began to turn their attention to Tibet and Southeast Asia. (see also Index: Pala dynasty)

3) The decline of Buddhism in India.

With the collapse of the Pala dynasty in the 12th century, Buddhism suffered another defeat, and this time it did not recover. Though some pockets of Buddhist influence remained, the Buddhist presence in India became so negligible that it could hardly be noticed.

Scholars do not know all the factors that contributed to the demise of Buddhism in its original homeland. Some have maintained that Buddhism was so tolerant of other faiths that it was simply reabsorbed by a revitalized Hindu tradition. This did occur, although Indian Mahayanists occasionally displayed a hostile attitude toward bhakti and toward Hinduism in general. However, there was another factor that was very important as well: Buddhism in India, having become mainly a monastic movement, probably paid little heed to the laity. Some monasteries became wealthy enough to have slaves and hired labourers to care for the monks and tend the lands they owned. Thus, after the Muslim invaders sacked the Indian monasteries in the 12th century AD, Buddhists had little basis for recovery. After the destruction of the monasteries, the Buddhist laity showed little interest in restoring the "Way."

4) Contemporary revival.

At the beginning of the 20th century Buddhism was virtually extinct in India. Since the early 1900s, however, a significant Buddhist presence has been reestablished. In the early decades of the 20th century a number of Buddhist societies were organized by Indian intellectuals who found in Buddhism an alternative to a Hindu tradition that they could no longer accept; an alternative that was, in addition, part of the cultural heritage of India. Following the Chinese conquest of Tibet in the late 1950s, there was an influx of Tibetan Buddhists who established a highly visible Buddhist community in northern India. In addition, the incorporation of Sikkim in 1975 into the Republic of India has brought into the modern Indian nation a small Himalayan society that has a strong Buddhist tradition related to the Vajrayana Buddhism of Tibet. (see also Index: Tibetan Buddhism)

The major component in the 20th-century resurgence of Buddhism in India has, however, been the mass conversion of large numbers of people from the so-called scheduled castes (formerly called Untouchables). This conversion movement, originally led by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, began in the 1950s. In October 1956 Ambedkar and several hundred thousand of his followers converted to Buddhism, and--although accurate figures are difficult to determine--the group has continued to grow. Some estimates indicate that the number of converts is as high as four million. This group, which in the past has tended to favour the Theravada version of Buddhism, is developing its own distinctive patterns of Buddhist teaching and practice.

2. SRI LANKA AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

The first clear evidence of the spread of Buddhism outside India dates from the reign of King Ashoka (3rd century BC). According to his inscriptions, Ashoka sent Buddhist emissaries not only to many different regions of the subcontinent but also into certain border areas as well. It is certain that Ashokan emissaries were sent to Sri Lanka and to an area called Suvarnabhumi that many modern scholars have identified with the Mon country in southern Myanmar (Burma) and central Thailand.

스리랑카와 남아시아

1) Sri Lanka.

According to the Sinhalese tradition, Buddhism took root in Sri Lanka with the arrival of Ashoka's son Mahinda and his six companions. Sent as missionaries by the Mauryan emperor, these travelers converted King Devanampiya Tissa and many of the nobility. Under King Tissa, the Mahavihara monastery was built, an institution that was to become the centre of Sinhalese orthodoxy. After Tissa's death (c. 207 BC) Sri Lanka fell into the hands of the South Indians until the time of Dutthagamani (101-77 BC), a descendant of Tissa, who overthrew King Elara. During this time, as a reaction to the threat posed by the South Indians, Buddhism and Sri Lankan political formations became closely intertwined. Again, it was probably because of this danger that the Pali canon was first written down under King Vattagamani Abhaya in the 1st century BC. This king also built the Abhayagiri monastery, the main centre of the various Mahayana movements in Sri Lanka. These heterodox tendencies were openly supported by King Mahasena (AD 276-303). Under Mahasena's son, Shri Meghavanna, the "Tooth of the Buddha" was brought to Abhayagiri and made the national palladium.

During the 1st millennium AD in Sri Lanka, the ancient Theravada tradition coexisted with various forms of Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, and Buddhist Tantrism. Beginning in the 10th century--as Buddhism was declining in India--Sri Lanka became a major locus of a Theravada Buddhist revival. As a result of this revival, Sri Lanka became a Theravada kingdom, with a sangha that was unified under Theravada auspices and a monarch who legitimated his rule in Theravada terms. The new Theravada tradition that was established spread from Sri Lanka into Southeast Asia, where it exerted a powerful influence.

In modern times Sri Lanka fell prey to the Western colonial powers (to the Portuguese in 1505-1658, the Dutch in 1658-1796, and finally the British in 1796-1947). Under King Kittisiri Rajasiha (1747-81) the ordination lineage was once again renewed, this time by monks recruited from Thailand.

The monastic community in Sri Lanka is now divided into three major bodies: (1) the Siam Nikaya, founded in the 18th century, a conservative and wealthy sect that admits only members of the Goyigama, the highest Sinhalese caste, (2) the Amarapura sect, founded in the 19th century, which has opened its ranks to members of lower castes, and (3) the reformed splinter group from the Siam Nikaya called the Ramanya sect. Among the laity several reform groups have been established. Among these the Sarvodaya community headed by A.T. Ariyaratne is especially important. This group has established religious, economic, and social development programs that have had a significant impact on Sinhalese village life.

Since Sri Lanka attained its independence from the British in 1947, the country has been increasingly drawn into a conflict between the Sinhalese Buddhist majority and the Tamil Hindu minority. Many Sinhalese Buddhists, including some monks, have closely associated their religion with the political agenda of the more militant Sinhalese nationalists. A few Buddhist leaders have, however, tried to adopt a more moderate position and to encourage a negotiated solution, the traditional basis for Sri Lankan political formation.

2) Southeast Asia.

The peoples of Southeast Asia have not been mere satellites of the more powerful Indian and Chinese civilizations. On the contrary, the cultures that arose in these three vast areas might better be thought of as alternative developments that occurred within a greater Austroasiatic civilization, sometimes called "Asia of the monsoons." Therefore, the transmission of Buddhism and Hinduism to Southeast Asia can be regarded as the spread of the religious symbols of the more "advanced" elements within this Austroasiatic cluster to peoples sharing some of the basic religious presuppositions and traditions.

In Southeast Asia the Buddhist impact has been made in very different ways in three different regions. In two of these (the region of Malaysia/Indonesia and the region on the mainland extending from Myanmar to southern Vietnam), the main connections have been via trade routes with India and Sri Lanka. In Vietnam the main connections have been with China.

i) Malaysia and Indonesia.

Though some scholars locate the Suvarnabhumi ("Land of Gold"), to which Ashokan missionaries were supposedly sent, somewhere on the Malay Peninsula or in Indonesia, this is probably not accurate. It is, however, quite certain that Buddhism reached these areas by the beginning centuries of the 1st millennium AD.

With the help of Indian missionaries such as the monk Gunavarman, Buddhism had gained a firm foothold on Java well before the 5th century AD. Buddhism was also introduced at about this time in Sumatra, and, by the 7th century, the king of Shrivijaya on the island of Sumatra was a Buddhist. When the Chinese traveler I-ching visited this kingdom in the 7th century, he noted that Hinayana was dominant in the area but that there were also a few Mahayanists. It was also in the 7th century that the great scholar Dharmapala from Nalanda visited Indonesia.

The Shailendra dynasty, which ruled over the Malay Peninsula and a large section of Indonesia from the 7th to the 9th century, promoted the Mahayana and Tantric forms of Buddhism. During this period major Buddhist monuments were erected in Java, among them the marvelous Borobudur, which is perhaps the most magnificent of all Buddhist stupas. From the 7th century onward, Vajrayana Buddhism spread rapidly throughout the area. King Kertanagara of Java (reigned 1268-92) was especially devoted to Tantric practice.

In the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia, as in India, Buddhism gradually lost its hold during the first half of the 2nd millennium AD. In many areas Buddhism was assimilated to Hinduism, forming a Hindu-oriented amalgam that in some places (for example in Bali) has persisted to the present. In most of Malaysia and Indonesia, however, both Hinduism and Buddhism were replaced by Islam, which remains the dominant religion in the area. (In modern Indonesia and Malaysia, Buddhism exists as a living religion only among the Chinese minority, but there is a growing community of converts, with its greatest strength in the vicinity of Borobudur.)

ii) From Myanmar to the Mekong delta.

A second pattern of Buddhist expansion in Southeast Asia developed in the mainland area that extends from Myanmar in the north and west to the Mekong delta in the south and east. According to the local Mon/Burman traditions, this is the area of Suvarnabhumi that was visited by missionaries from the Ashokan court. It is known that, by the early centuries of the 1st millennium AD, Buddhist kingdoms were beginning to appear in this region. In Myanmar and Thailand--despite the presence of Hindu, Mahayana, and Vajrayana elements--the more conservative Hinayana forms of Buddhism were especially prominent throughout the 1st millennium AD. Farther to the east and south, in what is now Kampuchea (Cambodia) and southern Vietnam, various combinations of Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, and Vajrayana Buddhism became dominant. Throughout much of the history of Angkor, the great imperial centre that dominated Kampuchea and much of the surrounding areas for many centuries, Hinduism seems to have been the preferred tradition, at least among the elite. In the late 12th and early 13th centuries, however, the Buddhist King Jayavarman VII built a new capital called Angkor Thom that was dominated by Mahayana/Vajrayana monuments; these monuments represent one of the high points of Buddhist architectural achievement.

In mainland Southeast Asia, as in Sri Lanka, a Theravada reform movement began to develop in the 11th century. Drawing heavily on the Theravada heritage that had been preserved among the Mon in southern Myanmar, as well as on the new reform tradition that was developing in Sri Lanka, this revival soon established the Theravada tradition as the most dynamic tradition in Myanmar, where the Burmans had conquered the Mon. By the late 13th century the reform movement had spread to Thailand, where the Thai were gradually displacing the Mon as the dominant population. Within another two centuries the Theravada reformers had spread their tradition to Kampuchea and Laos.

The Theravada preeminence that was thus established remained basically intact throughout the area during the remainder of the premodern period. The arrival of the Western powers in the 19th century, however, brought important changes. In Thailand, which retained its independence, a process of gradual reform and modernization took place. During the 19th century leadership in the reform and modernization process was taken by a new Buddhist sect, the Thammayut Nikaya, which was established and supported by the reigning Chakri dynasty. More recently, the reform and modernization process has become more diversified and has affected virtually all segments of the Thai Buddhist community.

Two Buddhist groups, Santi Asoke (founded 1975) and Dharmakaya, are especially interesting. Because of their hard-line demands for religious and moral reforms, both groups are at odds with the established ecclesiastical hierarchy. But, despite pressures from the government, they have acquired a large popular following.

In the other Theravada countries in Southeast Asia, Buddhism has had a much more difficult time. In Myanmar, which endured an extended period of British rule, the sangha and the structures of Buddhist society have been seriously disrupted. Under the military regime of General Ne Win, established in 1962, reform and modernization were limited in all areas of national life, including religion. In Laos and Kampuchea, both of which suffered an extended period of French rule followed by the devastation of the Vietnam War and the violent imposition of communist rule, the Buddhist community has been severely crippled. During the late 20th century, however, many signs of a Buddhist revival began to appear.

iii) Vietnam.

There are some indications that Vietnam was involved in the early sea trade between India, Southeast Asia, and China and that Buddhism reached the country around the beginning of the 1st millennium AD, brought by missionaries traveling between India and the Chinese empire. The northern part of what is now Vietnam had been conquered by the Chinese empire in 111 BC; it remained under Chinese rule until AD 939. In the south there were two Indianized states, Funan (founded during the 1st century AD) and Champa (founded AD 192). In these areas both Hinayana and Mahayana traditions were represented. The traditions that most affected the long-term development of Buddhism in Vietnam, however, were Zen and Pure Land traditions introduced from China into the northern and central sections of the country beginning in the 6th century AD.

The first dhyana (Zen; Vietnamese: thiên), or "meditation," school was introduced by Vinitaruci, an Indian monk who had come to Vietnam from China in the 6th century. In the 9th century a school of "wall meditation" was introduced by the Chinese monk Vo Ngon Thong. A third major Zen school was established in the 11th century by the Chinese monk Thao Durong. From 1414 to 1428 Buddhism in Vietnam was persecuted by the Chinese, who had again conquered the country. Tantrism, Taoism, and Confucianism were also filtering into Vietnam at this time. Even after the Chinese had been driven back, a Chinese-like bureaucracy closely supervised the Vietnamese monasteries. The clergy was divided between the highborn and Sinicized (Chinese-influenced), on the one hand, and those in the lower ranks who often were active in peasant uprisings.

During the modern period these Mahayana traditions centred in northern and central Vietnam have coexisted with Theravada traditions that have spilled over from Kampuchea in the south. Rather loosely joined together, the Vietnamese Buddhists managed to preserve their traditions through the period of French colonial rule in the 19th and 20th centuries. During the struggle between North and South Vietnam in the 1960s and early '70s, many Buddhists worked to achieve peace and reconciliation, but they met with little success. Under the communist regime that completed its victory in Vietnam in the early 1970s, conditions have been difficult, but Buddhism has persisted. Reports in the late 1980s and early '90s indicated that new signs of vitality were beginning to appear.

3. CENTRAL ASIA AND CHINA

 

중앙아시아와 중국

1) Central Asia.

The spread of Buddhism into Central Asia is still not completely understood by historians. But, however murky the details may be, it is clear that the trade routes that ran from northwestern India to northern China facilitated both the introduction of Buddhism and the maintenance, for many centuries, of a flourishing Buddhist culture.

By the beginning of the Common era, Buddhism had probably been introduced into eastern Turkistan. According to tradition, a son of Ashoka founded the kingdom of Khotan around 240 BC. The grandson of this king supposedly introduced Buddhism to Khotan, where it became the state religion. On more secure historical grounds, it is clear that the support given by the Indo-Scythian king Kaniska of the Kushan (Kusana) dynasty, which ruled in northern India, Afghanistan, and parts of Central Asia in the 1st to 2nd century AD, encouraged the spread of Buddhism into Central Asia. Kaniska purportedly called an important Buddhist council; he patronized the Gandhara school of Buddhist art, which introduced Greek and Persian elements into Buddhist iconography; and he supported Buddhist expansion within a vast region that extended far into the Central Asian heartland. In the northern part of Chinese Turkistan, Buddhism spread from Kucha (K'u-ch'e) to the kingdoms of Agnidesha (Karashahr), Kao-ch'ang (Turfan), and Bharuka (Aksu). According to Chinese travelers who visited Central Asia, the Hinayanists (at least at the time of their visits) were strongest in Turfan, Shanshan, Kashgar, and Kucha, while Mahayana strongholds were located in Yarkand and Khotan. (see also Index: Gandhara art)

In Central Asia there was a confusing welter of languages, religions, and cultures, and, as Buddhism interacted with these various traditions, it changed and developed. Shamanism, Zoroastrianism, Nestorian Christianity, and Islam all penetrated these lands and coexisted with Buddhism. For example, some of the Mahayana bodhisattvas, such as Amitabha, may have been inspired, in part, by Zoroastrian influence. There is also evidence of some degree of syncretism between Buddhism and Manichaeism, an Iranian dualistic religion that was founded in the 3rd century AD. (see also Index: Zoroastrianism)

Buddhism continued to flourish in parts of Central Asia until the 11th century, particularly under the patronage of the Uighur Turks. With the increasingly successful incursions of Islam (beginning in the 7th century AD) and the decline of the T'ang dynasty (618-907) in China, however, Central Asia ceased to be the important crossroads of Indian and Chinese culture that it once had been. Buddhism in the area gradually became a thing of the past.

2) China.

Although there are reports of Buddhists in China as early as the 3rd century BC, Buddhism was not actively propagated in that country until the early centuries of the Common era. Tradition has it that Buddhism was introduced after the Han emperor Ming Ti (reigned AD 57/58-75/76) had a dream of a flying golden deity that was interpreted as a vision of the Buddha. Accordingly, the emperor dispatched emissaries to India who subsequently returned to China with the Sutra in Forty-two Sections, which was deposited in a temple outside the capital of Lo-yang. In actuality, Buddhism entered China gradually, first primarily through Central Asia and, later, by way of the trade routes around and through Southeast Asia.

i) The early centuries.

The Buddhism that first became popular in China during the Han dynasty was deeply coloured with magical practices, making it compatible with popular Chinese Taoism (a combination of folk beliefs and practices and philosophy). Instead of the doctrine of no-self, early Chinese Buddhists taught the indestructibility of the soul. Nirvana became a kind of immortality. They also taught the theory of karma, the values of charity and compassion, and the need to suppress the passions. Until the end of the Han dynasty, there was a virtual symbiosis between Taoism and Buddhism and a common propagation of the means for attaining immortality through various ascetic practices. It was widely believed that Lao-tzu, the founder of Taoism, had been reborn in India as the Buddha. Many Chinese emperors worshiped Lao-tzu and the Buddha on the same altar. The first translations of Buddhist sutras into Chinese--namely those dealing with such topics as breath control and mystical concentration--utilized a Taoist vocabulary to make the Buddhist faith intelligible to the Chinese.

After the Han period, in the north of China, Buddhist monks were often used by non-Chinese emperors for their political-military counsel as well as for their skill in magic. At the same time, in the south, Buddhism began to penetrate the philosophical and literary circles of the gentry. One of the most important contributions to the growth of Buddhism in China during this period was the work of translation. The most important of the early translators was the learned monk Kumarajiva, who, before he was brought to the Chinese court in AD 401, had studied the Hindu Vedas, the occult sciences, and astronomy, as well as the Hinayana and Mahayana sutras.

During the 5th and 6th centuries AD Buddhist schools from India became established, and new, specifically Chinese schools began to form. Buddhism was becoming a powerful intellectual force in China, monastic establishments were proliferating, and Buddhism was becoming well-established among the peasantry. Thus, it is not surprising that, when the Sui dynasty (581-618) established its rule over a reunified China, Buddhism flourished as a state religion.

ii) Developments during the T'ang dynasty (618-907).

The golden age of Buddhism in China occurred during the T'ang dynasty. Though the T'ang emperors were usually Taoists themselves, they tended to favour Buddhism, which had become extremely popular. Under the T'ang the government extended its control over the monasteries and the ordination and legal status of monks. From this time forward, the Chinese monk styled himself simply ch'en, or "a subject."

During this period several Chinese schools developed their own distinctive approaches. Some of them produced comprehensive systematizations of the vast body of Buddhist texts and teachings. There was a great expansion in the number of Buddhist monasteries and the amount of land they owned. It was also during this period that many scholars made pilgrimages to India, heroic journeys that greatly enriched Buddhism in China, both by the texts that were acquired and by the intellectual and spiritual inspiration that was brought from India. Buddhism was never able to replace its Taoist and Confucian rivals, however, and in 845 the emperor Wu-tsung began a major persecution. According to records, 4,600 Buddhist temples and 40,000 shrines were destroyed, and 260,500 monks and nuns were forced to return to lay life.

iii) Buddhism after the T'ang.

Buddhism in China never recovered completely from the great persecution of 845. It did maintain much of its heritage, however, and it continued to play a significant role in the religious life of China. On the one hand, Buddhism retained its identity as Buddhism and generated new forms through which it was expressed. These included texts such as the yü lu, or "recorded sayings," of famous teachers that were oriented primarily toward monks, as well as more literary creations such as the Journey to the West (written in the 16th century) and The Dream of the Red Chamber (18th century). On the other hand, Buddhism coalesced with the Confucian- Neo-Confucian and Taoist traditions to form a complex multi-religious ethos within which all three traditions were more or less comfortably encompassed. (see also Index: Confucianism)

Among the various schools the two that retained the greatest vitality were the Ch'an school (better known in the West by its Japanese name, Zen) which was noted for its emphasis on meditation, and the Pure Land tradition, which emphasized Buddhist devotion. The former school exerted the greatest influence among the cultured elite. It did so through various media, including the arts. For example, Ch'an artists during the Sung dynasty (960-1279) had a decisive impact on Chinese landscape painting. Artists used images of flowers, rivers, and trees, executed with sudden, deft strokes, to evoke an insight into the flux and emptiness of all reality. The Pure Land tradition exerted a greater influence on the population as a whole and was sometimes associated with secret societies and peasant uprisings. But the two seemingly disparate traditions were often very closely linked. In addition, they were mixed with other Buddhist elements such as the so-called "masses for the dead" that had originally been popularized by the practitioners of Esoteric Buddhism. (see also Index: Pure Land Buddhism, Ch'an painting)

During the early decades of the 20th century, China experienced a Buddhist reform movement aimed at revitalizing the Chinese Buddhist tradition and adapting Buddhist teachings and institutions to modern conditions. However, the disruptions caused by the Sino-Japanese War and the subsequent establishment of a communist government have not been helpful to the Buddhist cause. The Buddhist community was the victim of severe repression during the Cultural Revolution (1966-69). Since 1976 the Chinese government has pursued a more tolerant policy, but the extent of continuing Buddhist vitality is difficult to determine.

4. KOREA AND JAPAN

 

한국과 일본

1) Korea.

Buddhism was first introduced into the Korean region when it was divided into the three kingdoms of Paekche, Koguryo, and Silla. After Buddhism was brought to the northern kingdom of Koguryo from China in the 4th century, it gradually spread throughout the other Korean kingdoms. As often happened, the new faith was first accepted by the court and then extended to the people. After the unification of the country by the kingdom of Silla in the 660s, Buddhism began to flourish throughout Korea. The monk Wonhyo (617-686) was one of the most impressive scholars and reformers of his day. He was married and taught an "ecumenical" version of Buddhism that included all branches and sects. He tried to use music, literature, and dance to express the meaning of Buddhism. Another scholar of the Silla era was Ui-sang (625-702), who went to China and returned to spread the Hwaom (Hua-yen in Chinese) sect in Korea. The Chinese Ch'an sect (Zen) was introduced in the 8th century and, by absorbing the Korean versions of Hua-yen, T'ien-t'ai, and Pure Land, gradually became the dominant school of Buddhism in Korea, as it did in Vietnam.

Early Korean Buddhism was characterized by a this-worldly attitude. It emphasized the pragmatic, nationalistic, and aristocratic aspects of the faith. Still, an indigenous tradition of shamanism influenced the development of popular Buddhism throughout the centuries. Buddhist monks danced, sang, and performed the rituals of shamans.

During the Koryo period (935-1392), Korean Buddhism reached its zenith. During the first part of this period the Korean Buddhist community was active in the publication of the Tripitaka Koreana, one of the most inclusive editions of the Buddhist sutras up to that time. After 25 years of research, a monk by the name of Uich'on (1055-1101) published an outstanding three-volume bibliography of Buddhist literature. Uich'on also sponsored the growth of the T'ien-t'ai sect in Korea. He emphasized the need for cooperation between Ch'an and the other "Teaching" schools of Korean Buddhism. (see also Index: Koryo dynasty)

Toward the end of the Koryo period, Buddhism began to suffer from internal corruption and external persecution, especially that promoted by the Neo-Confucians. The government began to put limits on the privileges of the monks, and Confucianism replaced Buddhism as the religion of the state. Though the Yi dynasty (1392-1910) continued these restrictions, Buddhist monks and laymen fought bravely against the invasion of the Japanese armies under Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-98) in 1592 and 1597. In the decade before the annexation of Korea by Japan (1910), some effort was made to unify Korean Buddhism. These efforts, as well as the subsequent efforts of Buddhist "missionaries" from Japan, were largely in vain.

Since the end of World War II, Buddhism in Korea has been hampered by communist rule in North Korea and by the great vitality of Christianity in South Korea. Despite these challenges, Buddhists, particularly in South Korea, have preserved the old traditions and initiated new movements.

2) Japan.

 

i) Introduction of Buddhism to Japan.

While Buddhism in China sent its roots down into the subsoil of the family system, in Japan it found anchorage in the nation itself. The Buddhism that was initially introduced into Japan in the 6th century from Korea was regarded as a talisman (charm) for the protection of the country. The new religion was accepted by the powerful Soga clan but was rejected by others, thus causing controversies that resembled the divisions caused by the introduction of Buddhism in Tibet. In both countries, some believed that the introduction of Buddhist statues had been an insult to the native deities, resulting in plagues and natural disasters. Only gradually were such feelings overcome. Though the Buddhism of the Soga clan was largely magical, under the influence of Prince Shotoku, who became regent of the nation in 593, other aspects of Buddhism were emphasized. Shotoku lectured on various scriptures that emphasized the ideals of the layman and monarch, and he composed a "Seventeen-Article Constitution" in which Buddhism was adroitly mixed with Confucianism as the spiritual foundation of the state. In later times he was widely regarded as an incarnation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara. (see also Index: Soga family)

ii) Nara and Heian periods.

During the Nara period (710-784), Buddhism became the state religion of Japan. Emperor Shomu actively propagated the faith, making the imperial capital, Nara--with its "Great Buddha" statue (Daibutsu)--the national cult centre. Buddhist schools imported from China became established in Nara, and state-subsidized provincial temples (kokubunji) made the system effective at the local level.

After the capital was moved to Heian-kyo (modern Kyoto) in 794, Buddhism continued to prosper. Chinese influence continued to play an important role, particularly through the introduction of new Chinese schools that became dominant at the royal court. Mount Hiei and Mount Koya became the centres for the new T'ien-tai (Tendai) and Esoteric (Shingon) schools of Buddhism, which were characterized by highly sophisticated philosophies and complex and refined liturgies. Moreover, Buddhism interacted with the indigenous Shinto and local tradition, and various distinctively Japanese patterns of Buddhist-oriented folk religion became very popular. (see also Index: Japanese religion)

iii) New schools of the Kamakura period.

The 12th and 13th centuries marked a turning point in Japanese history and in the history of Japanese Buddhism in particular. Late in the 12th century the imperial regime with its centre at Heian collapsed, and a new feudal government, or shogunate, established its headquarters at Kamakura. As a part of the same process, a number of new Buddhist leaders emerged and established schools of Japanese Buddhism. These reformers included proponents of the Zen traditions such as Eisai and Dogen; Pure Land advocates such as Honen, Shinran, and Ippen; and Nichiren, the founder of a new school that gained considerable popularity. The distinctively Japanese traditions these creative reformers and founders established became--along with many very diverse synthetic expressions of Buddhist-Shinto piety--integral components of a Buddhist-oriented ethos that structured Japanese religious life into the 19th century. Also during this period many Buddhist groups allowed their clergy to marry, with the result that temples often fell under the control of particular families.

iv) The premodern period to the present.

Under the Tokugawa shogunate (1603-1867), Buddhism became an arm of the government. Temples were used for registering the populace; this was one way of preventing the spread of Christianity, which the feudal government regarded as a political menace. This association with the Tokugawa regime made Buddhism quite unpopular at the beginning of the Meiji period (1868-1912), at least among the elite. At that time, in order to set up Shinto as the new state religion, it was necessary for Japan's new ruling oligarchy to separate Shinto from Buddhism. This led to the confiscation of temple lands and the defrocking of many Buddhist priests. (see also Index: Tokugawa period, Meiji Restoration)

During the period of ultranationalism (c. 1930-45), Buddhist thinkers called for uniting the East in one great "Buddhaland" under the tutelage of Japan. After the war, however, Buddhist groups, new and old alike, began to emphasize Buddhism as a religion of peace and brotherhood. During the postwar period the greatest visible activity among Buddhists has been among the "New Religions" such as Soka-gakkai ("Value Creation Society") and Rissho-Kosei-kai ("Society for Establishing Righteousness and Friendly Relations"). During this period, Soka-gakkai entered politics with the same vigour it had traditionally shown in the conversion of individuals. Because of its highly ambiguous but conservative ideology, the Soka-gakkai-based political party (the Komeito) is regarded with suspicion and fear by many Japanese.

5. TIBET, MONGOLIA, AND THE HIMALAYAN KINGDOMS

 

티베트, 몽고 및 히말라야의 왕국들

1) Tibet.

Buddhism, according to the Tibetan tradition, was first given recognition in Tibet during the reign of Srong-brtsan-sgam-po (c. 627-c. 650). This king had two queens who were early patrons of the religion and were later regarded in popular tradition as incarnations of the Buddhist saviouress Tara. The religion received active encouragement from Khri-srong-lde-btsan, during whose reign (c. 755-797) the first Buddhist monastery in Tibet was built at Bsam-yas (Samye), the first seven monks were ordained, and the celebrated Indian Tantric master Padmasambhava was invited to Tibet. A great deal of legend surrounds Padmasambhava, who was a mahasiddha ("master of miraculous powers"); he is credited with subduing the Bon spirits and demons (the spirits and demons associated with the indigenous religion of Tibet) and with subjugating them to the service of Buddhism. At the time, influences from Chinese Buddhism were strong, but it is recorded that at the Council of Bsam-yas (792-794) it was decided that the Indian tradition should prevail.

Following a period of suppression that lasted almost two centuries (from the early 800s to the early 1000s), Buddhism in Tibet enjoyed a revival. During the 11th and 12th centuries many Tibetans traveled to India to acquire and translate Buddhist texts and to receive training in Buddhist doctrine and practice. With the assistance of the renowned Indian master Atisha, who arrived in Tibet in 1042, Buddhism became established as the dominant religion. From this point forward Buddhism was the primary culture of the elite, was a powerful force in the affairs of state, and penetrated deeply into all aspects of Tibetan life.

One of the great achievements of the Buddhist community in Tibet was the translation into Tibetan of a vast corpus of Buddhist literature, including the Bka'-'gyur ("Translation of the Buddha Word") and Bstan-'gyur ("Translation of Teachings") collections. The Bka'-'gyur contains six sections: (1) Tantra, (2) Prajñaparamita, (3) Ratnakuta, a collection of small Mahayana texts, (4) Avatamsaka, (5) Sutra (mostly Mahayana sutras, but some Hinayana texts are included), and (6) Vinaya. The Bstan-'gyur contains 224 volumes with 3,626 texts, divided into three major groups: (1) stotras (hymns of praise) in one volume, including 64 texts, (2) commentaries on tantras in 86 volumes, including 3,055 texts, and (3) commentaries on sutras in 137 volumes, including 567 texts.

A major development in the history of Tibetan Buddhism occurred in the late 14th or early 15th century when a great Buddhist reformer named Tsong-kha-pa established the Dge-lugs-pa school, known more popularly as the Yellow Hats. In 1578, representatives of this school succeeded in converting the Mongol Altan Khan, and, under the Khan's sponsorship, their leader (the so-called third Dalai Lama) gained considerable monastic power. In the middle of the 17th century the Mongol overlords established the fifth Dalai Lama as the theocratic ruler of Tibet. The succeeding Dalai lamas, who were regarded as successive incarnations of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, held this position during much of the remainder of the premodern period, ruling from the capital, Lhasa.

The fifth Dalai Lama instituted the high office of Panchen Lama for the abbot of the Tashilhunpo monastery, located to the west of Lhasa. The Panchen lamas were regarded as successive incarnations of the buddha Amitabha. Unlike the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama has usually been recognized only as a spiritual ruler.

Throughout much of Tibetan history many of the great monasteries were controlled by aristocratic abbots who were able to marry and pass along their monastic possessions to their sons. Monks were often warriors, and monasteries became armed fortresses. The Manchus in the 18th century and subsequently the British, the Nationalist Chinese, and the Chinese communists have all tried to exploit the division of power between the Panchen and the Dalai lamas for their own ends. In 1959, after the Dalai Lama fled to India, the Chinese communists took over his temporal powers.

Under Chinese rule, Tibetan Buddhists have suffered periods of persecution, some of them severe. Not surprisingly, this has strengthened the bond between Buddhism and nationalist resistance.

2) Mongolia.

The distinctive form of Buddhism that developed in Tibet has exerted a strong influence on neighbouring areas and peoples. Most important in this regard was the conversion of the Mongol tribes to the north and east of Tibet. There are some indications that Buddhism was present among the Mongols as early as the 4th century, but the sources are scarce. It is clear, however, that during the 13th century close relationships developed between the Mongol court in China and some of the leaders of Tibetan Buddhism. Kublai Khan himself became a supporter of the Tibetan form of Buddhism. Kublai Khan's Tibetan advisers helped to develop a block script for the Mongolian language, and many Buddhist texts were translated from Tibetan into Mongolian. In general, however, the religion failed to gain widespread popular support during this period.

In 1578 a new situation developed when the Altan Khan accepted the Dge-lugs-pa version of the Tibetan tradition and supported its spread among his followers at all levels of Mongol society. Over the centuries the Mongols developed their own very rich Buddhist traditions. Mongolian scholars translated a large corpus of texts from Tibetan, and they produced their own sophisticated original texts. The Mongols based their Buddhist doctrine, practice, and communal organization on Tibetan models, but they developed and adapted them in a distinctive way.

Between 1280 and 1368 China was part of the Mongol empire, and the Mongols established their variant of Tibetan Buddhism in China. When they no longer held power in China, they continued to maintain the traditions they had developed in their homeland in the Central Asian steppes. During the 20th century, however, Mongolian Buddhism has been undermined by the communist regimes that have ruled in the Mongol areas of the Soviet Union, Mongolia, and China.

3) The Himalayan kingdoms.

Tibetan Buddhism has also exerted a considerable influence in the Himalayan kingdoms situated along Tibet's southern border. In Nepal Buddhism has been influenced by both India and Tibet. Though the Buddha was born in the southern part of the area that is now Nepal, at Lumbini, about 15 miles (24 kilometres) from Kapilavatthu (Kapilavastu), the Buddhist religion seems to have been actively propagated only later, probably under Ashoka. By the 8th century AD Nepal had fallen into the cultural orbit of Tibet. A few centuries later, as a result of the Muslim invasions of India, both Hindus (such as the Brahmanic Gurkha aristocracy) and Buddhists took refuge in the country. In modern times Buddhist prayer wheels and flags are reminders of the direct influence of Tibetan Buddhism. The Indian heritage is especially evident in the caste system that embraces Buddhists and non-Buddhists alike.

In Bhutan a Tibetan lama introduced Buddhism and a Tibetan style of hierarchical theocracy in the 17th century AD. The Buddhism practiced in Bhutan has been influenced by the Tibetan Bka'-brgyud-pa sect, which has stressed the magical benefits of living in caves and has not enforced on its clergy the discipline of celibacy. Buddhism in Bhutan, like Buddhism in Nepal, is coming into increasing contact with modernizing forces that are beginning to undermine many of its traditional practices.

6. BUDDHISM IN THE WEST

During the long course of Buddhist history, Buddhist influences have from time to time reached the Western world. Though the evidence is weak, some scholars have suggested that, about the beginning of the Christian era, Buddhist monks and teachings had reached as far as Egypt. There are occasional references to what seem to be Buddhist traditions in the writings of the Church Fathers. In addition, a version of the biography of the Buddha, known as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, had a considerable dissemination in medieval Europe. In fact, the Buddha-figure in the story came to be recognized as a Christian saint. (see also patristic literature)

서구의 불교

Not until the modern period, however, is there evidence for a serious Buddhist presence in the Western world. The movement of Buddhism from Asia to the West that took place in the 19th and 20th centuries had two aspects. Beginning in the mid-19th century, Buddhism was introduced into the United States and other Western countries by large numbers of immigrants, first from China and Japan but more recently from other countries, especially countries of Southeast Asia. Buddhism gained a foothold among a significant number of Western intellectuals and--particularly during the 1960s and early '70s--among young people seeking new forms of religious experience and expression. The interest of Westerners in Buddhism has been increased by the work of Buddhist missionaries such as the Japanese scholar D.T. Suzuki (1870-1966) and a number of Tibetan Buddhist teachers who have come to the West since the Chinese conquest of their homeland in the late 1950s. 

   


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