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종교 탐방

V. Beliefs and practices

신조와 관행들



1) Concepts of faith.

신앙의 개념

The idea of faith shared by all Christian churches is rooted in the New Testament. But the New Testament idea of faith is not simple, and it permits a breadth of meaning that has led to variations even within a single Christian communion. Most modern interpreters of the New Testament would agree to a description of New Testament faith as a total commitment of the self to God revealing himself in Christ. Yet it is doubtful whether the post-Reformation theology of any Christian church has presented faith simply in these terms.

Even before the Reformation, faith in Roman Catholicism had developed an emphasis that is not rooted in the New Testament but can be traced back to the Alexandrian school of theology and to Augustine. Faith appeared primarily as acceptance of revelation, and revelation appeared as a revelation of doctrine rather than as revelation of a person. This emphasis ultimately was formulated in the 13th century by Thomas Aquinas in a definition of faith--canonized by the Council of Trent and the first Vatican Council--as an intellectual assent given to revealed truth by the command of the will inspired by grace and motivated by the authority of God revealing.

The Reformers, with Martin Luther as the leader, rejected this idea of faith as nonbiblical and exclusively doctrinal; it seemed to place the teaching authority of the Roman Catholic Church between man and God not as a means of communication but as a replacement of God. Luther saw faith as confidence in the saving power of grace. This, Luther believed, was a return to the New Testament faith, but Roman Catholicism rejected this as a mere sentiment; these positions were crystallized up to the 20th century. At the risk of oversimplification, it is possible to say that both represented exaggerations of the New Testament. New Testament faith is more than either trust in the saving power and will of God or assent to revealed truth, although neither element can be entirely excluded. Efforts were wasted in trying to prove the adversaries wrong rather than in trying to understand the New Testament. The documents of the second Vatican Council reflect a shift in Roman Catholic theology from emphasis soley on faith as intellectual assent to recognition of faith as a loyal adherence to a personal God.

Roman Catholic theology, having chosen the option of faith as assent, was faced with the problems of showing that it was a rational assent rather than an irrational assent and of maintaining that faith was a deliberate and free meritorious act under the inspiration of grace. At first glance the two problems seem to cancel each other out; one can maintain one affirmation only by denying the other. (see also Index: reason)


모든 그리스도교 교회가 공유하는 신앙에 대한 관념은 〈신약성서〉에 근거하고 있다. 그러나 신약성서의 신앙 관념은 단순하지 않으며, 그 의미는 폭이 넓어 단일한 그리스도교 공동체 안에서조차도 다양하게 이해된다. 대부분의 현대 〈신약성서〉 해석가들은 〈신약성서〉에서의 신앙을 그리스도 안에서 자신을 계시하시는 하느님께 자신을 완전히 내맡기는 것으로 정의하고 있다.

2) Preambles and motivation of faith.

신앙의 전(前)단계 및 동인

The study of the problems connected with faith involves the investigation of what are called the preambles of faith and also of the motivation of faith. The preambles of faith include those processes by which the believer reaches the conclusion that it is reasonable to believe--e.g., the proof of the existence of God by the use of one's own reason. The freedom of faith is respected by affirming that this conclusion is as far as the preambles can take one. This process as proposed is a theoretical construction that actually occurs in no one, but the analysis can be of value in uncovering the psychological processes that occur without reflection. The preambles include the study of the scientific and historical difficulties raised against the Christian fact (i.e., the incarnation, Resurrection, Ascension, and glorification of Jesus Christ) itself or against the Roman Catholic interpretation and proclamation of the Christian fact or against the Roman Catholic claim to be the exclusive custodian of revealed doctrine and the means of salvation. These studies were efforts to show what cannot be shown by scientific and critical methods, but in the exaggerated claims of their defenders they showed that faith was a necessary conclusion of a valid rational process. Such a faith could be neither free nor the result of grace.

The study of the motivation of faith attempted to meet this difficulty. Some earlier analyses candidly presented faith as resting on evidence and clumsily postulated a movement of grace necessary to assent to this particular evidence. Normally, one "wills" to believe something because the evidence is not compelling; thus, people choose to believe that the candidate of their choice has the qualities desired for the office, although the evidence is less than overwhelming. The Roman Catholic thinks this is an assent to the probably rather than the certainly true and yet insists that the certainty of faith is the highest of all certainties. Ultimately, the Roman Catholic analysis must say that the evidence that belief is reasonable can never be so clear and convincing that it compels the radical deviation from worldly patterns that assent implies. At this point, the will inspired by grace chooses to accept revelation for other reasons than the evidence.

The motive of faith that has been presented by Catholic theologians is "the authority of God revealing." It is held that the preambles of faith show beyond reasonable doubt that God exists and that he has revealed himself. This evidence and an acceptance of the notion that, if God reveals himself, he does so authoritatively motivate a person to make the act of faith. The problem with such an analysis has been to define how the authority of the revealer is manifest to the believer. It seems that the notion of the authority of God revealing must be an object of faith rather than a motive, because the conjunction of this authority with the fact of revelation cannot be the object of historical experience. In the mid-20th century this dilemma caused an increasing number of Catholic theologians to move closer to a view that emphasized faith as a personal commitment to God rather than as an assent to revealed truth.


신앙과 관련된 문제들에 대한 연구에는 소위 신앙의 전단계와 신앙의 동인에 대한 조사가 포함된다. 신앙의 전단계에는 믿을 만한 이유가 있다는 결론에 신자들이 도달하게 되는 과정이 포함된다. 한 개인이 자신의 이성을 사용하여 하느님의 존재를 증명하는 것이 한 예이다.

가톨릭 신학자들은 신앙의 동인이 '계시하시는 하느님의 권위'라고 설명해오고 있다. 신앙의 전단계를 거친 사람은 이성적인 의심을 뛰어넘어 하느님이 존재하고 자신을 계시한다는 것을 믿게 된다는 것이다. 계시하는 하느님의 권위라는 관념은 동인이라기보다 신앙의 대상인 듯이 보인다. 왜냐하면 이 권위와 계시 사실의 결합은 역사적인 경험의 대상일 수 없기 때문이다. 이러한 딜레마 때문에 20세기 중반에 와서는 신앙이 계시된 진리를 따르는 것이라기보다 하느님께 자신을 인격적으로 위탁하는 것임을 강조하는 견해에 동조하는 가톨릭 신학자들의 수효가 증가하게 되었다.


3) Heresy


Heresy is the denial by a professed, baptized Christian of a revealed truth or that which the Roman Catholic Church has proposed as a revealed truth. The unbaptized person is incapable of heresy, and the baptized person is not guilty of "formal" but only of "material" heresy if he does not know that he denies a revealed truth. The seriousness with which Roman Catholicism regarded heresy is shown by the ancient penalty of excommunication. Civil penalties, including the supreme penalty, did not appear until the Constantinian age. Lesser civil disabilities continued in force, although the law was often ignored, into the 20th century. Protestant governments often borrowed some of this severity from Roman Catholic governments.

Roman Catholic theologians often deal with heresy, paradoxically, as a necessary step in the development of dogma. In order to save themselves from an extremely crass and even cruel rationalization, they point out that the questions raised by heresy were legitimate but that heretics too quickly assumed a one-sided and exclusive view of doctrine that they wished to impose on the entire church. Modern studies have sometimes been less kind to such champions of orthodoxy as Athanasius and Cyril of Alexandria, who were not themselves free of one-sided views and who showed themselves unwilling to listen to their adversaries with sympathy and understanding. In recent times most of the theses of Modernism (a movement to change the Catholic Church by means of radical renovation), which were condemned vigorously by Pius X in 1907, have found their way into Catholic theology. This may have something to do with the absence of the words heresy and heretics from the acts of the second Vatican Council. Like the use of the word church for Protestant churches, this indicates a substantial change of attitude toward a genuinely ecumenical position.


이단은 신앙을 고백하고 세례를 받은 그리스도인이 계시된 진리를 부인하거나 로마 가톨릭 교회가 계시된 진리라고 인정한 것을 부인하는 것이다. 이단이 성립되려면 3가지 요건이 필요하다. 첫째, 그가 세례받은 신자이어야 하고, 둘째, 계시된 진리, 즉 교리에 관한 오류나 의심이 있어야 하며, 셋째, 오류나 의심을 지속하려는 완고한 의지가 있어야 한다. 로마 가톨릭 교회가 이단에 대해 심각하게 대처했다는 것은 고대의 파문 형벌에 잘 나타나 있다. 그러나 제2차 바티칸 공의회 이후에는 이단의 개념이 달라졌다. 또한 이단과 이단자라는 말을 피하고, 대신 갈라진 비(非)가톨릭 그리스도교인 혹은 갈라진 형제라 부른다.




1) The concept of revelation.

계시의 개념

Although other religions have ideas of revelation, none of these bears a close resemblance to the idea of revelation found in the Old and New Testaments and in Christianity. Roman Catholic theologians distinguish between revelation in a broad sense, which means knowledge about God deduced from nature and man (and therefore actually philosophy), and revelation in the strict formal sense, by which they mean the utterance of God. This latter idea, of course, can only be conceived by analogy with the utterance of man, and its precise definition involves difficulties.

The earliest idea of revelation is the one found in the Old Testament in which the speech of God is addressed to Moses and the prophets. They in turn are described as quoting the words of God rather than interpreting them. Jesus, the fulfillment of the prophets, does not speak the word of God; he is the word of God. This phrase, which occurs only in the opening verse of both the Gospel and the First Letter of John, has become a technical term in theology; Jesus is the Incarnate Word. As such he is both the revealer and the revealed. He reveals the Father both by what he says and by what he is. Thus, the earliest Gospel (literally "good news") is the account of the life, death, and Resurrection of Jesus. The Gospel as the recital of his words appears in a later phase of development. (see also Index: logos)

It has been noted that the Roman Catholic Church has regarded revelation primarily as the revelation of propositions rather than the revelation of a person. Thus, even Jesus has been thought of more as a spokesman who tells of God than as a reality who himself in his being and actions manifests God. Though this latter aspect is found to some extent in the documents of the second Vatican Council, it has normally been considered only in the miracles of Jesus, which have been regarded in Roman Catholic apologetics as works of divine power that assure the credibility of the words of Jesus. These words, which were spoken in a particular historical context, have been preserved in a twofold way. They are written in the Gospels, which together with the Old Testament form a book of revelation that is distinct from the spoken words; but, because the Bible itself is written under divine inspiration, it has the same authority of revelation as the spoken words of Jesus. The Roman Catholic Church also preserves the words of Jesus, independently of the Bible, in its traditional teaching; but it does not utter the very words spoken by Jesus, and thus its words have a lower formal quality of revelation than the words of the Bible, although they are of equal authority. The idea of a book of revelation was taken by the early Christian Church from Judaism when it accepted the sacred books of the Jews as its own, just as it accepted the God of Judaism as the Father whom Jesus claimed for his own.


다른 종교에도 계시의 관념이 있지만, 〈구약성서〉·〈신약성서〉와 그리스도교에서 발견되는 계시의 관념과 흡사한 관념을 지니고 있는 종교는 없다. 성서는 '거룩하신 야훼 하느님'이 계시자임을 분명히 하고 있다. 성서의 계시는 가장 거룩한 존재자인 인격적 신이 자유로이 자기 자신을 드러낸다는 데 그 특색이 있다. 로마 가톨릭 신학자들은 광의의 계시와 엄밀한 공식적 의미의 계시를 구분하고 있는데, 전자는 자연과 인간으로부터 연역되는 하느님에 대한 지식(실제로는 철학)을 의미하며, 후자는 하느님의 말씀을 의미한다.

로마 가톨릭 교회가 계시를 본래 한 인격에 관한 계시라기보다는 신조에 관한 계시로 간주해왔다는 것은 주목할 만한 점이다. 따라서 예수까지도 자신의 존재와 행위를 통해 하느님을 드러내는 하나의 실재(實在)로 생각하기보다 오히려 하느님에 대해 말하는 대변자로 생각해왔다.


2) The content of revelation.

계시의 내용

The proper content of revelation is designated in Roman Catholic teaching as mystery; this theme was important in the documents of the first Vatican Council. The development of the theme of mystery responded to those intellectual movements of the 18th and 19th centuries that are called by such titles as the Enlightenment, Rationalism, scientism, and historicism. To the Roman Catholic Church these movements were threats to the idea of a sacred revelation; they appeared to claim that human reason had no frontiers or that human reason had demonstrated that revelation was historically false or unfounded or that the content of revelation was irrational. The affirmation of mystery meant that the reality of God was unattainable to unaided human reason; theologians had long used the word incomprehensible, which says more than modern theologians wished to say. Mystery refers both to the divine reality and to the divine operations of the world. These operations can be observed only in their effects; the operation itself is not seen, nor is its motivation seen. The plan of God, which is realized in history, is mysterious. The first Vatican Council insisted that the existence of God and of a moral order is attainable to reason, and some of the fathers of the council wished to state that these truths were imposed upon reason by the evidence, a step that the council did not choose to take. Mystery does not mean the incomprehensible or the unintelligible; it means, in popular language, that man cannot know who God is or what God is doing or why God is doing it unless God tells him. Mystery also means that, even when the revelation is made, the reality of God and his works escapes human comprehension.

The term supernatural has been used in Roman Catholic theology since the 17th century to designate not only revelation but other aspects of the divine work in the world. The term has an inescapable ambiguity that has led many modern theologians to avoid its use. The "natural" that the supernatural presupposes is the world of human experience; the quality of this experience is not altered by technological and social changes as long as these are fulfillments of the potentialities of nature. Indeed, it is the spectacular growth in the knowledge of these potentialities in modern times that leads to doubt as to whether there can be a supernatural at all. The supernatural reality is identified with God in his reality and in his operations. This is a reality that man cannot create or control. The supernatural in cognition is this reality as it is perceptible to man; it is, for man, simply unknown as far as unaided reason can move. The first Vatican Council affirmed that without revelation human reason has not reached anything but a distorted idea of the divine and an imperfect idea of the moral order. This means also that human beings are unaware of their destiny, either individually or collectively, without revelation and that they are unable to achieve it without the entrance of the supernatural into the world of history and experience. (see also Index: nature, philosophy of)

Contemporary theologians of revelation are aware of the problems raised by historical and literary criticism that render it impossible to cherish the primitive idea of revelation as the direct utterance of God to man. Roman Catholic theologians have not found a satisfactory way of describing revelation, but they do not see that the destruction of a naive idea of revelation destroys the whole idea. Theologians also recognize that the older idea of revelation of propositions as a collection of timeless and changeless verities, almost like a string of pearls, is no longer tenable. Every utterance that is called revelation was formed in a definite time and place and bears the marks of its history. There is no revealed proposition that cannot be restated in another cultural situation. Indeed, contemporary theologians are aware that these propositions must be restated if the Roman Catholic Church is to speak meaningfully in the modern world. Roman Catholicism does not accept the possibility of a new revelation; it believes that reason can never completely penetrate the "mystery" and that it must continue the exploration of the mystery that has already been revealed.


로마 가톨릭 교회는 계시의 고유한 내용이 신비라고 가르치는데, 이 주제는 제1차 바티칸 공의회 에서 중시되었다. 또한 제2차 바티칸 공의회는 초자연적 계시가 그 본질상 하느님이 스스로 자신을 인류에게 열어 보일 때 성립된다고 천명함으로써 계시의 개념을 순수 지성적으로 추구하려는 경향을 배척했다. 초자연적 계시는 피조물의 자연적 인식 가능성을 뛰어넘는 하나의 신비라는 것이다. 통속적 언어로 표현하면 신비는 하느님이 말해 주지 않으면 인간은 하느님이 누구고 무엇을 하는지, 왜 그것을 하는지 알 수 없다는 것을 의미한다. 따라서 인간 이성은 혼자의 능력만으로는 하느님의 실재에 도달할 수 없기 때문에 계시의 내용을 신비라고 하는 것이다. 또한 신비는 계시가 이루어질 때에도 하느님의 실재와 그의 일들은 인간의 이해를 벗어난다는 것을 의미한다. 이런 관점에서 신학자들은 신비에 대해 오랫동안 불가해하다는 말을 사용해왔다. 신비는 신적 실재와 신적인 세계의 운영 모두에 관련되어 있다. 신적인 세계의 운영은 그 결과를 통해서만 인식될 수 있다. 운영 그 자체는 보이지 않으며 그 동인도 역시 보이지 않는다.

현대의 계시신학자들은 계시를 인간에 대한 하느님의 직접적인 말씀이라는 원시적인 계시 관념을 유지하는 것이 불가능하다는 점을 간파하고 있다. 로마 가톨릭 신학자들은 계시를 만족스럽게 설명하는 방법을 아직 찾아내지 못했으나, 고루한 계시 관념을 타파한다고 해서 계시의 전체적인 관념이 파괴된다고 생각하지 않는다. 로마 가톨릭 교회는 새로운 계시의 가능성을 인정하지 않는다. 이성은 결코 신비를 꿰뚫어 볼 수 없으며, 따라서 이미 계시된 신비를 계속 탐구해야 한다고 믿고 있다.



성서와 성전(전승)

In Roman Catholic theology tradition is understood both as channel and as content. As channel it is identical with the living teaching authority of the Catholic Church. As content it is "the deposit of faith," revealed truth concerning faith and morals. In Roman Catholic belief, revelation ends with the death of the Apostles; the deposit was transmitted to the college of bishops, which succeeds the Apostles.

The Reformers contended that the Roman Catholic Church had imposed teachings that were not contained in the Scriptures, and this Protestant objection has been maintained in modern times. The objection was raised more intensely when the Immaculate Conception of Mary, the mother of Jesus (Pius IX, 1854), and her Assumption (Pius XII, 1950) were defined as dogmas. For neither of these is there any biblical evidence; more significantly, there is no evidence in tradition for either before the 6th century.

The Roman Catholic Church recognizes that the Bible is the word of God and that tradition is the word of the church. In one sense, therefore, tradition yields to the Scriptures in dignity and authority. But against the Protestant slogan of sola Scriptura ("Scripture alone"), itself subject to misinterpretation, the Roman Catholic Church advanced the argument that the church existed before the New Testament. In fact, the church both produced and authenticated the New Testament as the word of God. For this belief, at least, tradition is the exclusive source; and this furnished a warrant for the Catholic affirmation of the body of truth that is transmitted to the church through the college of bishops and preserved by oral tradition (meaning that it was not written in the Scriptures). The Roman Church therefore affirmed its right to find out what it believed by consulting its own beliefs as well as the Scriptures. The Council of Trent affirmed that the deposit of faith was preserved in the Scriptures and in unwritten (not in the Bible) traditions and that the Catholic Church accepts these two with equal reverence. The council studiously avoided the statement that they meant these "two" as two sources of the deposit, but most Catholic theologians after the council understood the statement as meaning two sources. Protestants thought it meant the Roman Catholic Church had written a second Bible.

Only in contemporary Catholic theology has the question been raised again, and a number of theologians believe that Scripture and tradition must be viewed as one source. They are, however, faced with the problem of nonbiblical articles of faith. To this problem several remarks are pertinent. The first is that no Protestant church preaches "pure" gospel; they have all developed dogmatic traditions, concerning which they have differed vigorously. It is true, on the other hand, that they do not treat these dogmatic traditions "with equal devotion and reverence" with the Bible. The second is that the early Christian Church through the first eight ecumenical councils (before the Eastern Schism in 1054) arrived at nonbiblical formulas to profess its faith. Protestants respond that this is at least a matter of degree and that the consubstantiality of the Son (i.e., that he is of the same substance as the Father), defined by the Council of Nicaea, is more faithful to the Scriptures than the Assumption of Mary.

Roman Catholics and Protestants should be able to reach some consensus that tradition and Scripture mean the reading of the Bible in the church. Protestants never claimed that a man and his Bible made a self-sufficient Christian church. The New Testament itself demands that the word be proclaimed and heard in a church, and the community is formed on a common understanding of the word proclaimed. This suggests a way to a Christian consensus on the necessity and function of tradition. No church pretends to treat its own history of belief as nonexistent or unimportant. By reading the Scriptures in the light of its own beliefs it is able to address itself to new problems of faith and morals that did not exist in earlier times or to which the church did not attend.

Catholic theologians of the 19th century dealt with the problem under the heading of development of dogma. To a certain extent the question can be reduced to epistemology (i.e., theory of knowledge): is a new understanding of an ancient truth a "new" truth? The problem does not arise out of faith; Sir Isaac Newton's observations of falling bodies consisted of nothing that people had not seen for thousands of years. Yet the effects of Newton's insights and calculations altered an understanding of the universe and the actions of people within the universe. The problem is important in theology because of the necessity of basing belief on the historical event of the revelation of God in Christ. Unless the link is maintained, the church is teaching philosophy and science, not dogma. Hence, the Roman Catholic theological teaching has tended to say that dogma develops through new understanding, not through new discoveries.


로마 가톨릭은 성서와 함께 성전(聖傳) 또는 전승(傳承)을 받아들인다. 거룩한 전통을 뜻하는 '성전'에는 여러 가지 의미가 있지만, 가장 일반적이고 널리 알려진 용례는 기록되지 않은 형태로 교회의 초창기부터 전해 내려오는 가르침과 실천적 관행을 가리키며, 기록된 성서의 말씀과 형식상 구별된다.

로마 가톨릭 신학은 성전 또는 전승이 매개의 기능을 할 뿐만 아니라 그 자체가 내용을 갖고 있는 것으로 이해한다. 매개로서 성전은 가톨릭 교회의 살아있는 교도권과 동일시된다. 성전의 내용은 신앙과 도덕에 관해 계시된 진리, 즉 '신앙의 저장물'이다. 로마 가톨릭 신앙에서 계시는 사도들의 죽음과 함께 끝나며, 그 저장물은 사도들을 계승하는 주교단에 전달되었다고 본다.

로마 가톨릭 교회는 성서가 하느님의 말씀이고, 성전은 교회의 말씀임을 인정하고 있다. 로마 가톨릭 교회는 교회가 〈신약성서〉 이전에 존재했다는 논의를 진전시켰다. 사실상 교회는 〈신약성서〉를 생기게 하였으며, 그 성서가 하느님의 말씀임을 확증시켰다. 최소한 이런 믿음에 대해서 성전은 유일한 원천이다. 바로 이 관념은 진리의 본체가 주교단을 통해 교회에 전달되고, 구전 (이 말은 성서에 기록되지 않았음을 의미)에 의해 보존되어왔다는 로마 가톨릭 교회의 주장에 대해 근거를 제공해주었다.

그리스도교 신앙의 규준으로 '성서와 함께 성전도 인정해야 한다'는 가톨릭의 입장은 '성서만' 인정하는 개신교의 입장과 사실상 맞서왔다. 개신교의 성서 유일주의에 대한 가톨릭의 주요반론은, 성서 자체가 모든 계시를 다 간직하고 있다거나 신앙의 유일한 규준이라고 주장한 구절이 성서에 없다는 것이다. 또한 양식 비평(樣式批評)이 입증하고 있는 바와 같이 성서는 히브리 전통과 사도들의 전통이 낳은 문학적 산물이기에 그러한 전통이 없었다면 성서는 존재할 수 없었으며, 따라서 성서를 성전이라는 본래의 배경에서 분리·독립시켜 버리면 성서가 가지는 본래의 가치와 생명력을 없애는 결과가 된다는 것이다.



교회의 교도권(敎導權)

1) The concept of teaching authority.

교도권의 개념

The Roman Catholic Church claims for itself a teaching authority that is unparalleled in the Christian community. The Reformation was primarily a rebellion against the teaching authority, and the Reformers did not claim for their own churches the authority they rejected in the Roman Church.

To teach with authority means that the teacher is able to impose his doctrine upon the listener under a religious and moral obligation. This moral obligation does not flow from the nature of teaching, which of itself imposes no obligation upon the learner; the learner is morally obliged only to assent to manifest truth. Instead it flows from the understanding that the Roman Church derives its teaching authority from the commission given by Jesus to the Apostles as contained in the New Testament ("He who hears you hears me"). But whereas the response of the hearers of the Apostles was faith, the response of the Roman Catholic is expected to go beyond faith. The Apostles were presumed to speak to those who did not yet believe, whereas the Roman Catholic Church imposes its teaching authority only upon its members. The definition of the teaching authority must show that these modifications do not exceed the limits of legitimate doctrinal development.

로마 가톨릭 교회는 다른 그리스도교 공동체에서는 유례를 찾을 수 없는 교도권을 주장한다. 종교개혁은 근본적으로 이 교도권에 대한 반란이었으며, 종교개혁자들은 그들이 로마 교회에서 거부한 교도권을 자기들의 교회에서 주장하지 않았다. 로마 가톨릭 교회는 〈신약성서〉에 나와 있듯이("너희의 말을 듣는 사람은 곧 나의 말을 듣는 사람이다") 예수가 제자들에게 가르침의 권한을 위임한 것에서 교도권의 유래를 찾는다. 그리스도는 가르치는 직무를 사도단의 구성원인 사도들에게 주셨고(마태 28:18~20), 사도단의 단장이요 최고 목자인(요한 21:15~17) 시몬 베드로에게는 그 형제인 모든 사도들을 신앙 안에서 견고하게 하는 임무까지 맡겼다(루가 22:32). 따라서 교회 안에서 주교직을 계승하는 주교들과 교황은 그리스도께서 사도단에게 주신 교도권을 이어받고 있다. 교도권은 하느님의 말씀에 봉사하고, 전해진 것만을 가르치고, 그것을 거룩히 보존하고 성실히 진술하는 권한이다.

2) Organs of teaching authority.

교도권의 행사기관

The teaching authority is not vested in the whole church but in certain well-defined organs. These organs are the hierarchy--the pope and the bishops. The Roman Catholic Church traditionally has divided the church into "the teaching church" and "the listening church." Clergy below the hierarchical level are included in "the listening church," even though they are the assistants of the bishops in the teaching office. The hierarchy alone teaches what the Roman Catholic Church calls "authentic" doctrine. There is an unresolved antithesis between this idea and the traditional belief that "the consent of the faithful" is a source of authentic doctrine; the conventional resolution that defines the consent as formed under the direction of the pastors of the faithful resolves the problem by depriving the consent of the faithful of any meaning.

The Roman pontiff is vested with the entire teaching authority of the Roman Catholic Church; this was solemnly declared in the first Vatican Council. This means that he is the only spokesman for the entire Roman Church; the papacy carries in itself the power to act as supreme pastor. It is expected that he will assure himself that he expresses the existing consensus of the church, but in fact the documents of the first Vatican Council are open to the understanding that the pope may form the consensus by his utterance. The second Vatican Council clarified this ambiguity in the idea of the spokesman of the church by its emphasis on the collegial character of the primacy of the pope. The pope, however, does not always speak as the supreme pastor and head of the Roman Church, and he is expected to make this clear in his utterance.

The bishops are authentic teachers within their dioceses. Thus, the same implicit conflict exists in regard to teaching as was noted in connection with governing. The conflict is resolved by collegiality; that the authentic teacher teaches orthodox doctrine is recognized by comparing his doctrine with that of his episcopal colleagues. In this way doctrinal disputes were resolved in the pre-Constantinian church, and a regional council was called if necessary. Since the Reformation the Roman see has never admitted publicly that a bishop has fallen into doctrinal error; the united front of authentic doctrine is preserved, and the matter is dealt with by subtle means. What is taught by all the bishops is authentic doctrine; it is understood that they teach in communion with the Roman pontiff, and a conflict of doctrine on this level is simply not regarded as a possibility. This consensus of the bishops is known as "the ordinary teaching." "The extraordinary teaching" signifies the solemn declaration of an ecumenical council, which is the assembly of the bishops, or the most solemn type of papal declaration, known as a definition of doctrine ex cathedra ("from the throne"), a term that signifies that the declaration exhibits the marks of the teaching of the supreme pastor addressed to the universal church. (see also Index: ex cathedra declaration)

교도권은 성직자단의 교도권과 평신도단의 교도권으로 구분되고, 성직자단의 교도권은 다시 그 행사상 장엄교도권과 통상교도권으로 나누어진다. 전자는 교황이 교좌에서 선언하거나, 주교단이 공의회에 모여 선언할 경우에 성립된다. 후자는 주교들이 권한을 갖고 발표하는 일반교시를 말하는데, 이는 회칙 형식이나 지역 주교단의 공동교서 형식으로 발표된다. 평신도단의 교도권은 평신도가 성직자단의 교도권을 통한 가르침을 받아들여 이를 세속문화에 적응시키고 깊이 이해함으로써 그 진리를 옹호하고 설명하는 데 공헌한다. 이 순종의 동기는 교황이나 주교들의 인간적 지식이나 지혜에 있는 것이 아니라 그리스도가 교황과 주교들을 통해 교회를 지도하고 지배하고 있다는 확신에 있다. 또한 가톨릭 교회는 성령이 주교들로 하여금 오류없이 가르치도록 도와주듯이, 평신도들이 오류를 믿지 않도록 도와준다고 믿고 있다.

교도권은 전체 교회에 부여되는 것이 아니라 확실하게 정의된 기관들에 부여된다. 이 기관들은 고위 성직자 계급인 교황과 주교들이다. 로마 가톨릭 교회는 전통적으로 교회를 '가르치는 교회'와 '듣는 교회'로 구분하고 있다. 고위 성직자 계급 이하의 성직자들은 '듣는 교회'에 포함된다.

로마 교황은 가톨릭 교회의 전체적인 교도권을 부여받고 있으며, 이 점은 제1차 바티칸 공의회에서 엄숙히 선언되었다. 이것은 교황이 전체 로마 교회의 유일한 대변자임을 의미한다. 교황은 본래의 사목자로서 행동할 수 있는 권한을 가지고 있다.

주교는 교구에서 활동하는 진정한 교사이다. 따라서 교회를 다스리는 것과 마찬가지로 가르침에 대해서도 내재적인 갈등이 존재한다.


3) Object and response.

The object of authentic teaching is defined as "faith and morals." Faith means revealed truth. Morals theoretically means revealed moral principles, but it has long been understood as moral judgment in any area of human conduct; thus, the Roman Catholic Church not only prohibits contraception for its members, but by declaring it contrary to "the natural law" the church declares contraception to be universally wrong. Thus, morals includes the declaration and interpretation of the natural law. The limits of faith and morals have never been defined by the Roman Catholic Church, nor can one take the exercise of the teaching authority as a reliable guide. Thus the teaching authority condemned the heliocentric theory of Galileo as contrary to the Bible because it has always understood that revealed truth involves propositions that are not themselves revealed but that must be affirmed or denied, at least in the present context of knowledge, because of revealed doctrine. (see also Index: morality)

Dogma is the name given to a proposition that is proclaimed with all possible solemnity either by the Roman pontiff or by an ecumenical council. A dogma is a revealed truth that the Roman Catholic Church solemnly declares to be true and to be revealed; it is most properly the object of faith. (see also Index: revelation)

The first Vatican Council declared that the pope, when he teaches solemnly and in the area of faith and morals as the supreme universal pastor, teaches infallibly with that infallibility that the church has. The infallibility of the church has never been defined, and its extent is understood by theologians in the sense of pontifical infallibility as limited to faith and morals. These terms are ambiguous, as noted above. Infallibility is actually hedged in with many reservations; nevertheless, pontifical documents often have an aggressive tone that may mislead the incautious reader. The real problem is how a teaching authority that can and does make errors in doctrinal teaching can be called infallible, even with numerous and serious reservations. In the early 1970s some Catholic theologians (e.g., Hans Küng) suggested that the church should be understood as indefectible (i.e., not able to fail or be totally led astray) rather than infallible. (see also Index: papal infallibility)

The proper response of the Roman Catholic to authoritative teaching that is "ordinary" and does not clearly deal with "faith or morals" is religious assent. This is extremely difficult to define; it admits dissent under poorly defined conditions. But the theory of religious assent does in fact permit the considerable dissent from the authoritative teaching of Paul VI in 1968 against contraception. Religious assent is particularly relevant to the pontifical document called the encyclical, a type of document that first appeared in the 18th century and became the normal mode of pontifical communication in the 19th century. The encyclical letter is a channel of ordinary teaching, not solemn and definitive and somewhat provisional by definition. Religious assent may be withheld, in popular language, by anyone who in good conscience thinks he knows better. The traditional discipline has made Roman Catholics slow to say this; in modern times they say it more quickly. At the same time, the documents of the second Vatican Council indicate that the authoritative teaching body will be slower to assert itself in the future.



주요 교의와 교리

The Roman Catholic Church in its formula of baptism still asks candidates to recite the Apostles' Creed as a sign that they believe what they must believe. The early Church Fathers made the creed the basis of the baptismal homilies given to catechumens, those preparing for the rite. The homilies, like modern Roman Catholic doctrine, went considerably beyond the bare articles of the creed.

Roman Catholic faith incorporates into its structure the books of the Old Testament.From these books it derives its belief in original sin, conceived as a hereditary and universal moral defect that makes human beings incapable of achieving their destiny and even of achieving basic human decency. The importance of this doctrine lies in its explanation of the human condition as caused by the failure of man and not by the failure of God (nor, in modern Roman Catholic theology, by diabolical influence). Man can be delivered from the human condition only by a saving act of God. This act is accomplished by God in the death and Resurrection of Jesus. In Jesus, God is revealed as the Father who sends the Son on his saving mission, and through the Son the Spirit comes to dwell in the redeemed. Thus the Trinity of Persons is revealed, and the destiny of man is to share the divine life of the three Persons. The saving act of Jesus introduces into the world grace, a theological idea that has been much and hotly disputed. Grace signifies in Roman Catholic belief both the love of God and the effect produced in man by this love. The response of believers to the presence of grace is the three theological virtues of faith, hope, and charity; these enable them to live the Christian life. Human beings are introduced to grace and initiated into the church by baptism, which must be preceded by repentance and faith. The life of grace is sustained in the church by the sacraments.

The life of grace reaches its fulfillment in eschatology; in this area of belief about the end of the world and "the last things," there is some uncertainty in modern theology. Most theologians recognize the mythological character of most of the imagery of heaven, hell, and purgatory. The peculiarly Roman Catholic belief in purgatory was an effort to state that most men at death are neither good enough for heaven nor bad enough for hell. The theology of the last things is still unable to cope with the implications of this statement. Belief in a resurrection to eternal life has never been easy, and modern times have produced more difficulties than solutions. Christianity, in fact, shows oscillation between a transcendental direction and an immanent direction; in modern times the emphasis is on immanence--that is, on the meaning of religion in the world. The second Vatican Council reflected this in its statements on the "secular" and the response of the church to the secular.

This summary can state no more than the basic elements of the Christian fact. The complex Roman Catholic dogmatic structure has been mentioned several times, and probably no two statements of "major dogmas and doctrines" would be the same.


로마 가톨릭 교회는 세례 예식서를 통해 영세 후보자들이 믿어야 할 교리를 믿는다는 표시로 사도신경을 암송할 것을 요구하고 있다. 초기교회 교부들은 이 사도신경을 기초로 세례 준비자들에게 세례 강론(설교)을 했다. 이 강론은 현대 로마 가톨릭 교리들과 마찬가지로 무미건조한 신조들보다 훨씬 풍부한 내용을 가졌다.

로마 가톨릭 신앙은 신앙의 구조 속에 〈구약성서〉를 통합시키고 있다. 또한 〈구약성서〉에서 원죄에 대한 신조를 끌어내고 있다. 원죄는 인간으로 하여금 하늘의 뜻을 성취하지 못하게 하고, 인간의 기본적인 품위마저도 이루지 못하게 하는 유전적이고 보편적인 도덕적 결함으로 생각된다. 이 교리의 중요성은 인간의 상황이 하느님의 실수가 아닌(또는 현대 가톨릭 신학이 말하듯이 악마의 영향에 의해서도 아닌) 인간의 실수에 의해 야기되었다고 설명하는 데 있다. 인간은 오직 하느님의 구원행위에 의해서만 그러한 인간상황으로부터 구원받을 수 있다. 이 구원행위는 예수의 죽음과 부활을 통해 하느님에 의해 성취되었다. 예수 안에서 하느님은 성자(聖子)에게 구원 사명을 주어 파견하는 성부(聖父)로서 계시되며, 성자를 통해 성령은 구원받은 인간들 가운데 임재한다. 위격(位格)의 3위일체는 이렇게 계시되며, 인간의 운명은 3위격의 신적인 삶을 공유하는 것이다.

예수의 구원행위는 세상에 은총을 가져오는데, 이 은총은 여러 차례 격렬하게 논란된 신학적 관념이다. 로마 가톨릭 신앙에서 은총은 하느님의 사랑을 의미하는 동시에 이 사랑으로 인해 인간 안에서 생기는 결과도 의미한다. 은총의 현존에 대한 신앙인들의 응답은 믿음·희망·사랑의 3가지 신학적 덕목이다. 이 3가지 덕목은 신자들로 하여금 그리스도인의 삶을 영위할 수 있게 해준다. 인간은 세례로 인해 은총을 받고 교회에 나오게 되는데, 회개와 믿음이 세례보다 선행되어야 한다. 은총의 삶은 성사(聖事)를 통해 교회 안에서 지속된다.




Cultic worship is so universal in religion that some historians of religion define religion as cult. Cultic worship is social, and this means more than a group worshiping the same deity in the same place at the same time. Cult is structured with a division of sacred personnel (priests) who lead and perform the cultic ceremonies for the people, who are in a more distant relation with the deity. The sacred personnel are designated by the choice and acceptance both of the deity and of the worshiping group. The words and actions of the cultic performance are divided into roles assigned to the leaders and to the worshipers. It is the tendency of cultic worship to replace spontaneity, which it once had, with set and even rigid forms of words and acts. These are preserved by tradition, and they generally have a sacredness that is based on the belief that the directions for cultic worship came ultimately from the deity.


1) The eucharistic assembly or mass.

성찬의 전례 또는 미사

Roman Catholic liturgy has its roots in Judaism and the New Testament. The central act of liturgy from earliest times was the eucharistic assembly, the commemorative celebration of the Last Supper of Jesus. This was set in a structure of liturgical prayer. The first six centuries of the Christian Church saw the development of a rich variety of liturgical systems, many of which have survived in the Oriental churches. In the West the Latin liturgy appeared fully developed in Rome in the 6th and 7th centuries. From the 8th century the Roman liturgy was adopted throughout western Europe. In this same period, however, liturgy developed in Frankish territories; and the Roman rite that emerged as dominant in the 10th century was a Roman-Frankish creation. The Roman rite was reformed by the Council of Trent by the removal of some corruptions and the imposition of uniformity; after Trent the Roman see was the supreme authority over liturgical practice in the entire Roman Catholic Church.

By the 11th century Roman liturgy had acquired the classic form that it retained up to the second Vatican Council. The fullness of the liturgy could be witnessed only in some cathedrals, collegiate churches, and monastic churches. The full liturgy included the daily celebration of the solemn high mass and recitation of the divine office in choir. The solemn high mass was performed by at least three major officers (celebrant, deacon, and subdeacon), assisted by many acolytes and ministers. Except during the penitential seasons of Advent and Lent, the altar was decorated, and numerous candles (in the Middle Ages for light rather than ornamentation) and incense were employed. The singing and chanting were accompanied by the organ and in modern times even by orchestral music; Mozart once complained that the Archbishop of Salzburg compelled him to compose a mass without the resources of a full symphonic orchestra.


로마 가톨릭의 전례는 유대교와 〈신약성서〉에 그 기원을 두고 있다. 초기부터 전례의 중심적 행위는 성찬의 전례, 즉 예수 그리스도의 최후만찬을 기념하는 예식이었다. 이것은 전례기도의 구조로 고정되었다. 그리스도 교회가 성립된 후 6세기 동안 매우 다양한 전례제도가 발전되었는데, 그 가운데 많은 제도가 동방교회의 전례 속에 남아 있다.

11세기에 전례는 고전적인 형식을 갖추게 되어 제2차 바티칸 공의회까지 유지되었다. 완전한 전례는 매일 거행하는 장엄(엄숙) 대미사와 성가대가 바치는 성무일도의 낭송을 포함했다. 장엄 대미사는 최소한 3명의 성직자(주례자, 부제, 차부제)가 집전하였고, 이들은 많은 시제(侍祭)와 복사(服事)의 시중을 받았다. 대림절(待臨節)과 사순절의 참회시기 외에는 제단이 장식되었으며, 수많은 촛대(중세시대에는 장식용이라기보다는 어둠을 밝히는 용도로 사용되었음)와 향이 사용되었다. 노래와 성가는 오르간 반주에 맞추어 불렀는데, 모차르트는 잘츠부르크의 대주교가 심포니 오케스트라도 제대로 갖추어 놓지 않고 미사곡을 작곡하도록 강요한다고 불평한 일도 있다.


2) The divine office.


The divine office was a legacy to the clergy from the monks. From the beginnings monks assembled several times daily for prayer in common. This developed into set common prayer at stated times each day (Matins, midnight; Lauds, first daylight; Prime, sunrise; Terce, mid-morning; Sext, noon; None, mid-afternoon; Vespers, sunset; Compline, before retiring). The divine office consisted basically of the chanting of the Psalms (in a weekly cycle), the recital of prayers, and the reading of the Scriptures (to which were later added selections from the writings of the Church Fathers, probably instead of a homily given by one of those present). Together with the mass the office has been the only "official" prayer of the Roman Catholic Church; all other prayer forms are "private," even if several hundred people recite them together. For this reason clerics in major orders for centuries since the Middle Ages have been obliged to recite the divine office, or "breviary," privately if they are not bound to attend the office in choir. It was long recognized that there is an inconsistency in the private silent reading of a prayer structure that is intended for choral chanting, and the second Vatican Council recommended a reform, after which time many priests abandoned the breviary.


성무일도는 수도자로부터 성직자에게 전해진 유산이었다. 성무일도는 기본적으로 시편의 낭송(1주일 주기로 함), 기도문 암송, 성서봉독(후에 교부들의 저작에서 발췌한 것을 첨가)으로 구성된다. 미사와 함께 성무일도는 매일 정해진 시간에 하느님을 찬미하는 로마 가톨릭 교회의 '공식적'기도가 되어왔다. 다른 모든 기도문 형식은 비록 수백 명이 함께 암송한다 해도 '비공식적인' 기도이다. 사제와 부제는 성무일도를 바칠 의무가 있으며, 수사들은 수도회의 규칙에 따라 성무일도를 바친다. 교회는 일반신자들도 바칠 것을 권유하고 있다.


3) The cycle and the language of the liturgy.

전례의 주기와 언어

The liturgy has long been arranged in an annual cycle that is a re-enactment of the saving events of the life, death, Resurrection, and glorification of Jesus Christ. Even many Catholics do not realize that the cycle has an eschatological outlook; the events are reenacted as an assurance that the saving act will reach its eschatological fullness, and the liturgy is an expression and a support of the Christian hope. The cult of the saints is an intrusion into the liturgical cycle, and it has been much reduced in the contemporary liturgical reforms.

Latin did not become the language of the Roman rite until the 6th century; the language of imperial Rome was Greek. As a sacred language Latin really has no parallel. Jews have always made a genuine effort to learn some Hebrew, and other sacred languages are archaic forms of the vernacular; the English of the Authorized Version of the Bible became the language of prayer in many Protestant churches. The effect of Latin was to make the liturgy the preserve of the clergy, and the laity became purely passive. This was countered by the efforts to use sound and spectacle in the performance of the solemn liturgy. The Canon of the mass, the central eucharistic formula, for centuries was recited by the celebrant inaudibly; this was a kind of verbal "sanctuary" that the laity were not even supposed to hear. The abandonment of Latin as a result of the second Vatican Council excited deep antagonisms; one sees in the Latin liturgy an image, cherished by many, of the timeless and changeless Roman Catholic Church. Yet the restoration of the vernacular should restore to the liturgy two functions that it had in the early centuries: to instruct converts and to confirm members in their faith.


전례는 오래전부터 1년 주기로 배열되어 왔는데, 이 전례주기는 예수 그리스도의 삶과 죽음, 부활, 영화(榮化)의 구원사건을 재연한 것이다. 이 구원사건은 구원 행위가 종말론적 완성에 도달할 것임을 보여주는 보증으로써 재연된다. 전례는 그리스도교적 희망의 표현인 동시에 확증이라고 할 수 있다.

라틴어는 6세기 이전까지는 로마 가톨릭 교회의 전례 용어가 아니었다. 라틴어의 영향으로 전례는 성직자의 영역이 되었고, 평신도는 순전히 수동적인 입장이 되었다. 제2차 바티칸 공의회의 결과, 라틴어 사용이 폐지되자 교회 내에서 심한 반대가 일어났다. 그것은 사람들이 라틴어 전례에서 많은 사람들의 가슴 속에 간직되어 있는 영원한 로마 가톨릭 교회의 표상을 보았기 때문일 것이다. 그럼에도 불구하고 모국어 전례의 복원은 처음 수세기 동안에 전례가 지녔던 2가지 기능, 즉 개종자를 가르치고 신자들의 신앙을 확고하게 하는 기능을 회복시키는 데 큰 도움을 주었을 것으로 보인다.



성사(聖事 Sacrament)

1) The sacraments in general.

성사의 개관(槪觀)

In Roman Catholic theology a sacrament is an outward sign, instituted by Jesus Christ, that is productive of inner grace. The number of sacraments is seven (defined by the Council of Trent against the Reformers, who reduced the number). The number seven does not appear in Roman Catholic teaching before the 11th century, and it is an example of truth for which the Roman Catholic Church relies on its own tradition.

The sacrament in modern theology is frequently described as an encounter with mystery, the mystery being the saving act of God in Christ. Theological studies have been directed to the exploration of the idea of sign and significance. The traditional Roman Catholic statement of the effectiveness of the sacraments (defined by the Council of Trent) is described by the untranslatable ex opere operato, which is best explained briefly by saying that the faith and virtue of the minister neither add to the sacrament by their presence nor detract from it by their absence. The minister is merely the agent of the church, and the effectiveness of the sacrament is based on the saving act of God in Christ, which is signified by the rite and applied to the recipient of the sacrament.

Protestant theologians formerly charged the Roman Catholic Church with a belief in magic; this controversial angle has generally been abandoned, but the theological explanation of the sign that effects by signifying is still difficult. Roman Catholic theologians remark that the mystery of God's saving act is not capable of complete rational explanation. There are analogies, however, in common experience, and there is no society that does not employ effective signs. These signs are not merely for display. The inauguration of the president of the United States makes the man president; the sign is effective because it signifies the reality of the election that this individual won. The sign of the coronation of a monarch is equally effective, but it is more difficult to define the reality signified. Such effective symbols are a part of human society.

The Roman Catholic Church adheres strictly to the external sign. Traditionally the church attributes the institution of the sign to Jesus Christ (although this has been the subject of discussion among modern theologians), and this removes the right of anyone to tamper with it. The Roman Catholic Church believes that, if God gave a sign, the alteration of the sign so that the significance is lost might render the sign ineffective. Hence, the use of the proper material and the retention of the traditional formula are treated as sacred. The Roman Catholic Church maintains its exclusive competence to supervise matter and form "in detail," a competence not precisely defined. Since Thomas Aquinas the material used is called matter, and the words are called form; the terms are borrowed from the Aristotelian theory of the constitution of matter. The material becomes sacred and salutary only by its conjunction with the proper words. The effect produced has for centuries been called grace, but it is difficult to assert a single effect and still explain why there are seven symbols.

The term sacramental is used to designate verbal formulas (such as blessings) or objects (such as holy water or medals) to which a religious significance has been attached. These are symbols of personal prayer and dedication, and their effectiveness is measured by the particular dispositions of the person who uses them. Although superstition has arisen in connection with sacramentals, the Roman Catholic with elementary instruction knows the difference between them.

로마 가톨릭 신학에서 전례는 예수 그리스도가 제정한 것으로 내적 은총을 가져오는 외적인 표징이다. 전례는 가톨릭 교회가 성서와 성전에 의거하여 정식으로 공인한 의식으로 개인의 신앙생활과 구별된다. 제2차 바티칸 공의회는 "전례를 통해 우리 속죄의 구원사업이 수행된다. 그러므로 신자들이 그리스도의 신비와 참된 교회의 본질을 다른 이에게 드러내 보이고 명시하는 데 가장 큰 도움"이 된다고 강조한다. 여기서 전례는 하느님과 구원될 인간의 결합이며, 끊임없는 만남이라는 의미가 강하게 표현되어 있다. 전례에서 중심적 위치를 차지하는 것이 미사와 성사이다. 성사의 수는 7가지로서 7대성사라고 부른다(이 수는 트리엔트 공의회가 성사의 수를 줄인 종교개혁자들에 대항하기 위해 규정한 것). 현대신학에서 성사는 흔히 '신비와의 만남'이라는 말로 표현되는데, 이 신비는 그리스도 안에서 이루어지는 하느님의 구원행위이다.


2) Baptism


Baptism is the sacrament of regeneration and initiation into the church. According to a theme of St. Paul, probably influenced by Jewish belief in the circumcision of adult proselytes, baptism is death to a former life and the emergence of a new person, signified by the conferring of a new name; it is the total annulment of the sins of one's past and the emergence of a totally innocent person. One becomes a member of the church and is incorporated into the body of Christ, thus becoming empowered to lead the life of Christ. Nothing but pure natural water may be used, and baptism must be conferred in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Baptism is normally conferred by a priest, but the Roman Catholic Church accepts the baptism conferred by anyone having the use of reason "with the intention of doing what the church does." As the sacrament of rebirth it cannot be repeated. The Roman Catholic Church baptizes conditionally in case of doubt of the fact of baptism or the use of the proper rite.

Two points of controversy still exist in modern times. One is baptism by pouring rather than immersion, even though immersion was probably the biblical and early Christian rite. The change was almost certainly the result of the spread of Christianity into Europe north of the Alps and the occurrence of the baptismal feasts, Easter and Pentecost, often in early spring. The Roman Catholic Church simply asserts that the symbolism of the bath is preserved by a ritual infusion of water.

The second is the baptism of infants. There is no certain evidence of this earlier than the 3rd century, and the ancient baptismal liturgies are all intended for adults. The liturgy and the instructions clearly understand the acceptance of baptism as an independent adult decision; without this decision the sacrament cannot be received. The Roman Catholic Church accepts this principle by introducing adults (sponsors, godparents), who make the decision for the infant at the commission of the parents. In Roman law as in modern law, adults are empowered to make decisions for minors. It is expected that the children will accept the decision made for them and will thus supply the adult decision that was presumed.

Until the recent liturgical renewal baptism did not have the religious and ceremonial importance that it had in the early church; the ceremonies were intended to make the adult aware that he had made the most important decision of his life, and the whole church witnessed the ceremony, performed only twice a year on a group of catechumens. Doubtless the baptism of infants contributed to this loss of ceremonialism and to a corresponding lower esteem of baptism.


성세 또는 세례는 신앙 안에서 다시 태어나 교회의 일원이 되는 성사이다. 유대인의 성인 개종자 할례 신앙에서 영향을 받은 듯이 보이는 사도 바울로의 논지에 따르면, 세례는 과거의 삶을 마감하고 새 이름을 받는 예식에서 드러나듯 하나의 새로운 인간으로 태어나는 것이다. 세례는 과거의 죄를 전적으로 폐기하는 것이며, 전적으로 순결한 인간으로 출현하는 것이다. 그는 교회의 일원이 되며 그리스도의 몸과 합쳐짐으로써 그리스도의 생명을 부여받게 된다. 순수한 자연수 외에는 아무 것도 세례에 사용될 수 없으며, 세례는 반드시 성부와 성자와 성령의 이름으로 베풀어져야 한다. 세례는 통상적으로 사제들이 집행한다. 세례는 태어남의 성사이므로 반복될 수 없다.


3) Confirmation


Confirmation since the 11th century has been conferred by the bishop through the anointing with oil and the imposition of hands; the words are a declaration that the Holy Spirit is conferred. This is an echo of the accounts in the Acts of the Apostles (chapters 8 and 19) in which a distinction is made between baptism and the conferring of the Spirit. In Acts, however, the reception of the Spirit meant the reception and the manifestation of charismatic gifts (e.g., prophecy, speaking with tongues, ecstasy); something else is now meant. Confirmation is normally conferred at or near the beginning of adolescence. The modern liturgical renewal has empowered pastors of parishes to confer confirmation.

Neglect of the theology of confirmation has left some ambiguities. The Oriental churches confer it on infants as a part of the initiation rites of baptism. The postponement of confirmation has led many Roman Catholic theologians to interpret it as a rite of passage from childhood, like the Jewish Bar Mitzvah ceremony; such rites of passage are common in tribal cultures. Early Christian baptism, however, was conferred on adults; thus the catechumenate was the period of "immaturity." It seems that there should be a return to the theology of the Spirit and a consideration of confirmation as the sacrament that empowers the Christian to take an active part in the church. The traditional Roman Catholic view of the laity as passive has contributed to the neglect of the theology of confirmation; it left no room for a charismatic laity.


성세성사를 받은 신자에게 성령과 그 선물을 주어 신앙을 성숙시키고 증거하게 하여 교회의 완전한 구성원이 되게 하는 성사이다. 가톨릭 교회는 성서에서 견진성사를 집행한 사례로, 베드로와 요한이 사마리아에서(사도 8:14·17), 바울로가 직접 세례를 준 적이 없는(고린 1:17) 에페소에서(사도 19:1~6) 이미 그리스도의 세례를 받은 신자에게 안수를 하여 성령을 충만히 받게 함으로써 견진성사를 집전한 사실을 들고 있다. 견진성사는 11세기 이래로 주교가 기름을 바르고 안수해주는 방식으로 집행되어 왔는데, 한편 성사 집행자는 성령이 임하신다는 선언을 한다.


4) The Eucharist.


The Eucharist (the Lord's Supper, Holy Communion) is with baptism one of the two sacraments most clearly found in the New Testament; most Christian churches have it in some form. The Roman Catholic Church distinguishes the Eucharist as sacrifice (mass) and sacrament (communion).

The formula of institution of the Eucharist and the command to repeat it are found in the three Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke) and in Paul. Originally the Eucharist was a repetition of the common meal of the local group of disciples with the addition of the bread and the cup symbolizing the presence of Jesus. Even in the 2nd century the meal became vestigial and was finally abandoned. The Eucharist was originally celebrated every Sunday; by the 4th century it was celebrated daily. The eucharistic formula was set in a framework of biblical readings, psalms, hymns, and prayers that depended in form somewhat on the synagogue service. This remained one basis of the various liturgies that arose, including the Roman rite.

The sacrificial character of the Eucharist was determined by its relation to the death of Jesus. The Eucharist is not seen as sacrificial everywhere in the New Testament, but the theme is so clearly elaborated in the Letter to the Hebrews that it is universally accepted as Christian belief. The Protestant churches denied the sacrificial character of the Eucharist and rejected the mass. Roman Catholic theology has never reached a universally accepted theory explaining the connection between the death of Jesus and the mass, but it has firmly insisted that the mass repeats the rite that Jesus told his disciples to repeat and that the rite is an effective symbolic commemoration of his death. The mass is the only act of worship that the Roman Catholic Church imposes upon its members. Historically, the Roman Church has attached great importance to the mass, conceding almost anything to secure its celebration.

Roman Catholicism believes in the Real Presence, and this has dominated Catholic-Protestant controversies about Holy Communion. Protestant belief can generally be called dynamic as contrasted with Catholic realism. The celebrated term transubstantiation is defined as the change of the substance of bread and wine into the substance of the body and blood of Jesus Christ. Protestants believe that Jesus is experienced as present. The Roman Catholic theory is difficult to explain in terms other than those of antiquated Aristotelian physics, and recent theories, not yet successful, have attempted to explore sacramental symbolism in other ways. The realism of belief in the presence is associated with the Roman Catholic practice of distributing only the bread to the laity, a serious modification in the sacramental sign. Not yet universally restored, Holy Communion under both species has become much more common since the second Vatican Council.

Neither in Roman Catholic nor in Protestant eucharistic practice does the sacrament retain much of the symbolism of Christian unity, which it clearly has in the New Testament. Originally the symbolism was that of a community meal, an accepted social symbol of community throughout the whole of human culture. Roman Catholic efforts to restore this have included the use of the vernacular and the active participation of the laity. Furthermore, the ancient rite of concelebration--i.e., several priests or bishops jointly celebrating a single eucharistic liturgy--was restored by the second Vatican Council as a means of symbolizing unity; and the practice of celebrating the Eucharist in an informal setting--i.e., in private homes or classrooms--was instituted in some places as a way of drawing the laity more intimately into the rite. But a great obstacle to the symbolism of unity remains the liturgical isolation of the celebrant and the silence that suited the atmosphere of mystery and the presence of God. (see also Index: ecumenism)

Church law obliges the Roman Catholic to receive Holy Communion once a year (during the Lent-Easter season). Practice of frequency has varied over the centuries; the present law reflects the infrequency that was common in the Middle Ages. The symbolism of the sacrament as nutrition becomes rather feeble with such infrequency; it was rationalized both by the theology of the power of the sacrament and by considerations of the general unworthiness of Christians to receive it.


성찬식(주의 만찬, 성체배령)은 성세성사와 더불어 〈신약성서〉에서 가장 명확하게 발견되는 2가지 성사 중 하나이다. 대부분의 그리스도 교회는 어떤 형태로든 이 성사를 지키고 있다. 로마 가톨릭 교회는 이 성찬식을 희생제사(미사)와 성사(영성체)로 구분하고 있다. 성체는 예수 그리스도가 빵과 포도주 형태 안에 실체로 현존하는 것을 말한다. 성체의 제전은 초대교회 때부터 그리스도교 신자 공동체의 중심이었다. 가톨릭 교회는 "나를 기념하여 이 예식을 행하라"(Ⅰ고린 11:24)는 말씀대로 매일 미사성체를 통해 이 성체제전을 거행한다고 말한다. 로마 가톨릭 교회법은 신자들에게 최소한 1년에 1번(사순절·부활절 기간에)은 영성체를 할 것을 의무화하고 있다.


5) Penance


The name of the fourth sacrament, penance, reflects the earliest discipline of the penitential rite. Those who sinned seriously were excluded from Holy Communion until they showed repentance by undergoing a period of public penance that included such practices as fasting, public humiliation, the wearing of sackcloth, and other austerities. At the end of the period they were publicly reconciled to the church. There were some sins, called capital (murder, adultery, apostasy), for which certain local churches at certain times did not perform the rite; this did not mean that God did not forgive but that good standing in the church was permanently lost. Elsewhere it was believed that the rite of penance could be performed only once; relapsed sinners lost good standing permanently. Rigorist sects that denied the power to forgive certain sins were regarded as heretical. The penitential rite did not endure beyond the early Middle Ages, and there can be no doubt that it was too rigorous for most Christians. It may also be noticed that the penitential discipline did not reflect the forgiveness of Jesus in the Gospels with all fidelity.

It is impossible to assign an exact date for "auricular confession"--the confessing of faults by an individual penitent to a priest--but it must have arisen in the early Middle Ages with the disappearance of the penitential system. This is the penitential rite that has endured into modern times. It was rejected by most of the Reformers on the ground that God alone can forgive sins. The Roman Catholic Church claims that the absolution of the priest is an act of forgiveness; to receive it the penitent must confess all serious (mortal) sins and manifest genuine "contrition," sorrow for sins, and a reasonably firm purpose of amendment. No quality or quantity of sin is too great for sacramental absolution. Roman Catholic theologians have not arrived at an explanation of the process of absolution. They do not admit that absolution is merely a recognition by the priest of dispositions on the part of the penitent that merit forgiveness nor that it is merely a process whereby the penitent is reconciled with the church. There seems to be an unspoken belief that it is a rare person who is really sorry for his sins and that the sacrament is a manifestation of the graciousness of God to human weakness.

Indulgences, which caused such a stir at the beginning of the Reformation, are neither instant forgiveness to the unrepentant nor licenses of sin to the habitual sinner. They are declarations that the church accepts certain prayers and good works, listed in an official publication, as the equivalent of the rigorous penances of the ancient discipline.


4번째 성사의 이름인 고해는 교회 초기의 참회 의식을 반영하고 있다. 당시 큰 죄를 지은 사람들은 공적인 참회기간을 통해 회개의 표시를 하기 전까지는 성체를 배령할 수 없었는데, 공적인 참회에는 금식, 대중 앞에서의 금욕적인 행위, 참회의 표시인 삼베옷 입기, 다른 금욕생활 등이 포함되어 있었다. 참회기간이 끝나면 그들은 공적으로 교회와 화해하게 되었다. 죄 중에는 대죄라고 하는 죄(살인·간음·배교)가 있었는데, 어떤 지역교회들은 한때 이 대죄에 대해서는 참회의식을 베풀지 않았다. 이것은 하느님이 이런 죄를 용서하시지 않는다는 뜻이 아니라 이런 죄를 지은 사람은 교회에서 영원히 설 땅을 잃었다는 것을 의미한다. 제2차 바티칸 공의회 이후 고백성사는 많은 사람들에게 화해성사로 수용되었다.


6) The anointing of the sick

병자성사 (병자의 도유)

This sacrament was long known in English as "extreme unction," literally rendered from its Latin title, unctio extrema. This non-English designation concealed the meaning of the Latin, "last anointing." It is conferred by anointing the sense organs (eyes, ears, nostrils, lips, hands, and formerly the feet and the loins) with blessed oil and the pronunciation of a formula. It may be conferred only on those who are seriously ill; seriousness is measured by the danger of death, but a danger, however certain, from external causes (such as the execution of the death sentence) does not render one apt for the sacrament. It may be administered only once during the same illness; recovery renders one apt again. Its effects are described as strengthening both of soul and body; it is an ancient rite that continues Jesus' ministry of healing. The sacrament is directed against "the remains of sin," an ill-defined phrase; but it was long ago recognized that illness saps one's spiritual resources as well as one's physical strength, and one is not able to meet the crisis of mortal danger with all of one's powers. In popular belief anointing is most valuable as a complement to confession or, in case of unconsciousness, as a substitute for it.

The anointing is not the sacrament of the dying; it is the sacrament of the sick. The New Testament passage (James 5:14-15) to which the Roman Catholic Church appeals for this rite does not envisage a person beyond recovery. Postponement until the patient is critically ill in modern medical terms means that the sacrament is often administered to an unconscious or heavily sedated patient. Under such circumstances the rite can no longer be effective as a sacrament of the sick, and to the uninformed a magical rite of forgiveness is suggested.


이 성사는 전례서에 규정된 기도문을 봉송하면서 성유(聖油)를 병자의 각 신체기관(눈·귀·콧구멍·입술·손, 전에는 발과 허리까지였음)에 도유(塗油)하는 것이다. 이 성사는 중병을 앓고 있는 사람들에게만 집행할 수 있다. 동일한 병으로 앓고 있는 동안에는 단지 1번만 이 성사를 받을 수 있으나, 회복 후 다시 앓게 될 경우에는 또 1번 이 성사를 받을 수 있다. 신앙적으로 보면 병자의 도유는 고백성사를 보완하고, 수령자가 무의식 상태일 경우 고백성사를 대체하는 매우 유익한 성사이다.


7) Marriage


The inclusion of marriage among the sacraments gives the Roman Catholic Church jurisdiction over an institution that is of concern to the state and to non-Catholic persons and groups within society. The Roman Church claims complete jurisdiction over the marriages of its members, even though it is unable to urge this jurisdiction in modern secular states. The sacrament in Roman Catholic teaching is administered by the spouses through the exchange of consent; the priest, whose presence is required, is an authorized official witness; in addition, the church requires two other witnesses. Marriage is safeguarded by a number of impediments that render the marriage null and void whether they are known or not, and the freedom of the spouses must be assured. This means that the Roman Catholic Church demands an unusually rigorous examination before the marriage, and this in turn means that it is practically impossible to marry on impulse in the Catholic Church. All of this is for the purpose of assuring that the marriage so contracted will not be declared null in the future because of some defect. (see also Index: annulment)

The rigid Roman Catholic rejection of divorce has been a major point of hostility in the modern world. Absolute indissolubility is declared only of the marriage of two baptized persons (Protestants as well as Catholics). The same indissolubility is not declared of marriages of the unbaptized, but the Roman Church recognizes no religious or civil authority except itself that is empowered to dissolve such marriages; this claim is extremely limited and is not used unless a Roman Catholic is involved. Because of its rigorous conditions for contracting marriage, the Roman Catholic Church finds grounds for nullity that do not exist in civil law, and it is willing to make a more searching examination. Declarations of nullity, however, should not be confused with divorce nor be thought a substitute for divorce. Some Roman theologians have suggested that Roman Catholic rigour is based on a misunderstanding of the Gospel texts that reject divorce; but a position maintained for centuries is not easily modified.

The onerous conditions that Roman Catholicism formerly imposed upon non-Catholic partners in mixed marriages have been notably relaxed since the second Vatican Council, particularly as regards written promises that the children would receive religious education in the Roman Catholic faith. The former coldness of the Roman Church toward such marriages is also relaxed; they may be celebrated in church during the mass, and a Protestant minister or a Jewish rabbi may share the witness function with the priest.


로마 가톨릭 교회는 혼인을 성사에 포함시킴으로써 국가와 사회에서 비(非)가톨릭 신자나 단체에게도 관심사가 되고 있는 제도에 대해 관할권을 행사하게 되었다. 로마 가톨릭 교회는 현대의 세속 국가 안에서 이 관할권을 주장하지 못하지만 가톨릭 교회 신자들의 결혼에 대해서는 전적인 관할권 행사를 주장한다. 로마 가톨릭 교회의 가르침에 따르면, 혼인성사는 혼인 당사자들의 혼인서약의 교환으로 이루어진다. 사제는 혼인예식에 반드시 참석하여 권한을 위임받은 공적인 증인이 된다. 교회는 사제 이외에 다른 2명의 증인들을 요구한다. 로마 가톨릭 교회는 혼인성사를 집전하기 전에 당사자들에게 결혼에 대해 매우 엄밀한 검토를 할 것을 요구하며, 따라서 로마 가톨릭 교회에서는 충동에 의한 결혼이 실제적으로 불가능하다. 이것은 혼인성사가 어떤 결함 때문에 나중에 무효로 선언되지 않도록 완벽을 기하기 위한 조치이다.

이혼을 반대하는 로마 가톨릭 교회의 완고한 입장은 특히 교회 밖에서 중요한 비난의 표적이 되어 왔다. 혼인 계약의 조건들을 엄격히 규정함으로써 로마 가톨릭 교회는 민법에 규정되지 않은 혼인무효의 근거를 가지고 있다.


8) Holy orders


This sacrament confers upon candidates the power over the sacred, which means the power to administer the sacraments. The Latin Church had long recognized four minor orders (porter, lector, exorcist, acolyte) and four major orders (subdeacon, deacon, priest, bishop). The minor orders represented church services rendered by persons not ordained. In 1972 Pope Paul VI issued the apostolic letter Ministeria quaedam, which abolished the major order of subdeacon and all minor orders and which created the lay liturgical ministries of lector and acolyte. Only the major orders are held to be sacramental, but they are regarded as one sacrament within which a tripartite hierarchy of sacramental effects is administered separately. Ordination is conferred only by the bishop; the rite includes the imposition of hands, anointing, and the delivery of the symbols of the order. The power of the sacred peculiar to the bishop is shown only in the sacraments of confirmation and orders. Ordination can neither be repeated nor annulled. Priests who are suspended from priestly powers or laicized (permanently authorized to live as a layman) retain their sacred power but are forbidden to exercise it except in emergency. The priest is always ordained to a "title," meaning that he is accepted in some ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Lectors and acolytes are instituted by a bishop or by the major superior of a clerical religious institute. Following a calling of the candidates, instruction, and prayer, lectors are presented a Bible and acolytes a vessel with bread or wine. (see also Index: holy order, clergy)

Other theological developments following the second Vatican Council concerned the ordination of women, against which no solid theological objection has been shown; the restoration of the permanent diaconate (with the powers to baptize, preach, and administer the Eucharist), to which both married and single men are admitted; and the idea of ordination for a fixed period of service. Except for the diaconate, these are radical suggestions in Roman Catholicism.


이 성사는 성직 후보자들에게 성무에 관한 권한, 즉 성사를 집행할 수 있는 신권(神權)을 부여하는 것이다. 서품(사제직 수임)식은 주교만이 집행할 수 있으며, 서품식에는 안수와 도유, 성직의 상징적인 물건을 전달하는 예식이 포함된다. 서품식은 반복되거나 무효가 될 수 없다.

사제직의 권한 행사를 정지당한 신부나 환속한(영원히 평신도로 살도록 허락받은) 신부는 성직 권한을 보유하고는 있으나 긴급시를 제외하고는 그 행사가 금지되어 있다.



전례에 준하는 봉헌의식

In the Roman Catholic Church, liturgy in the proper sense is the liturgy of the mass, the divine office, and the sacraments. The Latin language, the clerical character of the liturgy, and the search for novelty for hundreds of years have combined to produce forms of worship that are paraliturgical--by which is meant that they lie outside the liturgy and in some cases in opposition to it. These acts are also known as devotions or devotional practices, by which is meant that they are accepted voluntarily and not from obligation.


로마 가톨릭 교회에서 온전한 의미의 전례는 미사전례, 성직전례, 성사(聖事)들이지만, 전례에 준하는 예배 형태들도 발전되어 왔다. 전례에 준한다는 말은 이 예배 형태들이 전례에 속하지 않고, 어떤 경우에는 전례와 배치된다는 것을 뜻한다. 이 행위들은 봉헌이나 봉헌의식이라고 일컬어지기도 한다.


1) Eucharistic devotions.

성만찬 봉헌

A number of eucharistic devotional practices arose in the Middle Ages, when Catholics rarely received the Eucharist more than once a year. These were cultic forms that were directed to the Real Presence of Jesus in the Eucharist rather than to sacrifice and Holy Communion. Such were Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament and "exposition." Benediction was a blessing conferred by a priest holding a consecrated Host in a vessel of display called the monstrance; the priest's hands were covered to signify that it was the blessing of Jesus and not his own. This blessing was accompanied by hymns and the use of the organ and incense. Exposition was the public and solemn display of the eucharistic bread, again with the accompaniment of hymns, the organ, incense, and processions. The reservation of the Eucharist in churches was a way in which Catholics could address themselves in personal prayer to Jesus really present. These have often functioned as substitutes for mass and Holy Communion, and since the modern renewal of liturgy they occur much less frequently.


성만찬 봉헌의식 중에는 축복받은 성사의 성체강복식과 '진열'이 있고, 찬송, 오르간 반주, 향, 행렬이 동반되는 성만찬 빵의 장엄한 공개가 있다.


2) Cult of the saints.

성인 숭배

Other devotions revolve about the cult of the saints, a practice repudiated by the Reformers as a denial of the total mediation of Christ. This objection oversimplified Catholic practice, but the devotions did sometimes approach superstition. Catholic theologians distinguish (by Greek technical terms) the worship paid to God (latria, "adoration") from the veneration addressed to Mary (hyperdulia, "super-service") and the saints (dulia, "service"). Protestants do not disagree with the principle of admitting the saints as examples of genuine Christianity, but they reject the intercession of the saints as utterly superfluous and ineffective. The Roman Catholic understanding of the intercession of the saints is an extension of the belief in the communion of saints. Although such veneration does tend to multiply mediators, it has often fostered a simple and not unpleasing familiarity with the world of the supernatural. The excesses of the cult of Mary have stirred up controversy, and the tendency to superstition and the deification of Mary have sometimes been painfully present. Mary represents the feminine principle in Roman Catholicism; often in other religions this principle has been personified as a goddess. Mary is given the feminine traits of sympathy and tenderness that are not improper to the deity but are somewhat improper to the father figure and the king figure. The multitude of apparitions of Mary (e.g., at Lourdes, Fr., and Fatima, Port.) come from the need of a local and national symbol of presence, which enables the Roman Catholics of a nation or region to identify with Mary. Because Mary as a historical person is almost totally unknown, Catholics have been able to find in her all the traits of the ideal person that they needed to find. (see also Index: cult of saints, veneration of the saints)

Roman Catholicism has always insisted on its right to official supervision of devotional cults, and only approved forms of devotions may be used in the churches or under clerical auspices. Approval does not imply the historical reality of the vision or apparition involved; no Roman Catholic is obliged to believe that Mary appeared to anyone at Lourdes or Fatima, that the rosary (prayer beads) was delivered by a private revelation, or that Jesus manifested himself as the Sacred Heart. Nor is any Catholic obliged to practice any of these devotions. Generally, they serve the purpose of emphasizing some element of Christian faith that is obscured in the preaching and the liturgy at a particular time and place. Devotion to the Sacred Heart, for example, turned the attention of Catholics to the humanity of Jesus and to Christian love in the somewhat arid spirituality of the 17th and 18th centuries. It may be urged that more authentic biblical proclamation would have brought out these things; Roman Catholicism has often manifested itself through devotions when authentic biblical preaching was not available. In approving devotions the Roman Catholic Church simply declares that they are not in conflict with Roman Catholic faith and morals. It does not deny that they may be entirely products of the imagination.


그밖의 봉헌의식들은 성인숭배를 중심으로 이루어지는데, 종교개혁자들은 그리스도의 완전한 중재를 부정한다고 하여 성인숭배를 비난했다. 이러한 종교개혁자들의 반대는 가톨릭 의식(儀式)을 지나치게 단순화한 것이지만, 봉헌 의식들이 미신에 가까워진 경우도 흔히 있었다. 가톨릭 신학자들은 하느님께 바치는 예배와 마리아나 성인들에 대한 경모를 서로 구별한다. 개신교도들은 성인들을 참된 그리스도교 정신의 모범으로 보는 원리를 거부하지는 않지만, 성인들의 개입은 전적으로 불필요하고 아무런 효력이 없다고 못박는다. 성인들의 개입에 대한 로마 가톨릭의 이해는 성인들의 친교에 대한 신앙을 확대시킨 것이다. 성인들에 대한 경모심은 예수 그리스도라는 단 하나의 중재자 이외에 여러 중재자들을 상정하도록 하는 경향이 있기는 하지만, 초자연적 세계에 대한 소박하고 유쾌한 친밀감을 조성해온 것도 사실이다.

지나친 동정녀 마리아 숭배는 많은 논란을 불러일으켜 왔고, 고통스러운 일이기는 하지만 미신의 경향을 띠거나 마리아를 신격화하는 일이 종종 나타나기도 했다. 마리아는 로마 가톨릭 교회에서 여성의 원리를 대표한다. 다른 종교에서도 이 원리가 여신으로 인격화되는 경우가 흔하다. 마리아에게는 동정심과 부드러움 같은 여성의 특징이 부여되어 있다. 이 특징은 아버지나 왕의 이미지에는 어울리지 않지만 신에게 부적합한 것은 아니다. 마리아가 여러 차례 출현한 것(예를 들면, 프랑스의 루즈, 포르투갈의 파티마)은 어떤 지역 혹은 국가에서 마리아 임재의 상징을 필요로 한 것에서 비롯된 현상이며, 그 지역 혹은 국가의 로마 가톨릭교도들은 그와 같은 임재를 마리아와 동일시했다. 역사적 인물로서 마리아에 대해서는 거의 아무 것도 알려져 있지 않기 때문에, 가톨릭 교도들은 그들이 찾아야 할 이상적인 인물의 모든 특질을 마리아에게서 찾을 수 있었던 것이다.

로마 가톨릭 교회는 언제나 봉헌의식들에 대한 공식적인 감독권을 주장해왔다. 로마 가톨릭 교회가 인정한다고 해서 환상이나 출현의 역사적 실재성이 저절로 확보되는 것은 아니다. 로마 가톨릭교도는 마리아가 루즈나 파티마의 누구에겐가 나타났다는 것을 믿어야 할 의무가 없으며, 로사리오(기도용 묵주)가 사적(私的)인 계시를 통해 전달되었다거나 예수가 성스러운 하트 모양으로 자신을 드러냈다고 믿어야 할 의무도 없다. 또한 가톨릭교도들은 이 봉헌의식 중 어느 하나를 의무적으로 실행할 필요가 없다. 대체로 이 봉헌의식들은 특정한 시간과 장소에서 행해지는 강론과 전례를 통해 그 뜻이 명확하게 밝혀지지 않는 그리스도교 신앙의 몇 가지 요소를 강조하는 데 이바지한다.


3) Mysticism.


The search for God through mysticism has never been received cordially by the official Roman Catholic Church. In general terms, the mystical experience can be described as a direct experience of the reality of the divine. A sufficient number of mystics have been proved fraudulent to justify caution but not to justify a blanket antecedent disapproval. Every saint who has been recognized as a mystic had some trouble with church authority. Indeed, one may see in the mystical experience of God something that the official church can neither furnish nor control. In addition, mystics have often had a prophetic character that expressed itself in criticism of abuses in the official church. Whatever the explanation, mystical phenomena have become extremely rare in the modern Roman Catholic Church. (see also Index: Christianity)



교회의 사회적 역할

1) Missions.


From its beginnings Christianity alone among the great religions has regarded itself as a true world religion that appeals to all men without distinction of race, nation, or culture. Roman Catholicism believes that it has preserved this missionary thrust more faithfully than any of the non-Roman churches. From the 4th to the 10th century the Roman Church devoted itself to the evangelization of the barbarians. The barbarians wished to become "Roman," and they accepted the church as a component of Roman civilization. The spread of Islam was met with crusades and not with missionaries, and the Roman Catholic Church has never mounted more than a feeble missionary effort toward Muslims. Thus, the missionary movement languished from the 10th to the 16th century; but the ages of the expansion of Europe, in which the Catholic countries were the early leaders, spread Roman Catholicism to the Americas, Asia, Oceania, and Africa. (see also Index: colonialism)

This missionary effort differed from both the New Testament missions and the missions to the European barbarians in its very close, centralized control by the Roman see. Missionary churches have begun to achieve that independence proper to the diocesan structure only in the 20th century. It has been difficult for the Roman Catholic missions to divorce themselves from colonialism, and many missionaries did not want the divorce. Again until recent times most of the clergy and all the hierarchy in mission countries were European or American, as were the heads of educational and benevolent operations. Even the peoples of the mission countries, including their clergy and religious personnel, generally wished to give their church a European identity rather than an Asian or African identity. The Roman see, which had suppressed efforts to admit Chinese rites in the 18th century, was unsympathetic to what appeared to be "non-Roman" practices. The second Vatican Council officially ended the colonial phase of missions; in practice, however, the end will take longer. Where possible--meaning where the personnel are available--the operation of the mission churches has been given to native hierarchy and clergy.


그리스도교는 초기부터 대종교들 가운데서 유일하게 인종과 국가 또는 문화의 구별없이 만인을 향해 호소하는 진정한 세계 종교임을 자임해왔다. 로마 가톨릭 교회는 이러한 선교 추진력을 어떤 비가톨릭 교회들보다 더 충실히 간직해왔다고 믿고 있다. 제2차 바티칸 공의회는 식민주의적인 선교형태를 공식적으로 종식시켰다. 그러나 실제적으로 이를 완전히 종식하기까지는 시간이 더 걸릴 것이다. 선교지에서 배출된 인사들이 충분한 선교 지역에서는 교회의 운영을 토착적인 위계질서와 성직자들에게 일임해오고 있다.


2) Education.


Between the barbarian invasions and the Protestant Reformation, education in Europe, except for the Arabic and Jewish centres of learning, was conducted by Roman Catholicism. Learning during the early Middle Ages was preserved by the monasteries; and, although the monks did little more than copy the manuscripts of Greek and Latin pagan writers and of the Church Fathers, they educated the few people who had any learning. The foundation of the European universities after 1200 was also the work of Roman Catholicism; these institutions were stimulated by the learning of Arabic scholars, through whom Europeans became acquainted with the philosophy of Aristotle and produced the learning of Scholastic philosophy and theology. The cultivation of literature and the arts in the 15th century flourished under the patronage of the papacy and Catholic princes and prelates. (see also Index: education, history of , parochial education)

The birth of modern science was coincidental with the Reformation and the age of the expansion of Europe. The Roman Catholic response to the new science, accompanied by new philosophical systems, was hostile; and the world of European learning after 1600 was dissociated from the Roman Catholic Church, which patronized only defensive learning. At the same time, Roman Catholic initiatives in educating the poor were gaining momentum. The invention of printing had diffused education far beyond earlier possibilities, and the churches were all interested in reaching the minds of the young. This interest was matched after the French Revolution by the modern states, which in the 19th century moved toward the exclusion of church influence from education. But the Roman Catholic Church, through its religious communities, was a pioneer in the elementary education of the children of the poor.

In the 20th century the Roman Catholic educational endeavour in many European and American countries, particularly in the United States, had become a vast enterprise. In the second half of the 20th century, however, mounting costs and diminished religious personnel created critical problems for Catholic schools, and even their survival was at stake in many regions. The problems were not lightened by the realization that Roman Catholic education, even where it was strongest, reached only a minority of Catholic students; and the Roman Church had to face its established reputation as an adversary of the intellectual freedom that the modern academic world cherishes.


야만족의 침입부터 프로테스탄트 종교개혁이 발생하기까지 오랜 기간 동안 유럽의 교육은 아랍족과 유대인들의 학문 중심지를 제외하고는 로마 가톨릭 교회에 의해 실시되었다. 15세기의 문학과 예술은 교황권과 가톨릭 군주들 및 고위성직자들의 후원으로 꽃을 피웠다.

현대 과학의 태동은 종교개혁 및 유럽의 팽창시기와 동시에 이루어졌다. 새로운 철학 체계를 동반한 새로운 과학에 대한 로마 가톨릭 교회의 반응은 적대적인 것이었다. 1600년 이후 유럽의 학문세계는 오로지 신앙 수호를 위한 학문만을 보호하였던 로마 가톨릭 교회와 결별했다.

20세기에 들어서 유럽과 아메리카 지역의 여러 나라들, 특히 미국에서 교육을 위한 로마 가톨릭 교회의 노력은 하나의 방대한 사업이 되었다. 그러나 20세기 후반기에 들어와서는 교육 경비의 급등과 교육기관에 종사하는 신자 직원들의 감소로 인해 가톨릭 학교들은 심각한 어려움에 직면하게 되었고, 여러 지역에서는 학교의 존립마저 위태롭게 되었다. 또한 가톨릭 교회는 현대의 학문세계가 소중히 여기는 지적인 자유에 역행한다는 기존의 평판에 대처해야 했다.


3) Eleemosynary activities.


Institutional benevolence to the poor, the sick, orphans, and other helpless people has been characteristic of the Christian Church from its beginning. It involved organized assistance, supported by the contributions of the entire community and rendered by dedicated persons. The church in this way fulfilled the duty of "the seven corporal works of mercy" mentioned in the Gospel According to Matthew (chapter 25) and carried on the healing mission of Jesus. Protestant churches continued the works of institutional benevolence after their separation from the Roman Church, and the history of Christian benevolence is a noble portion of church history. Institutional assistance to the helpless is a legacy from the church to modern governments. (see also Index: poverty)

This work, which would seem to be above criticism, was beset with troubles in the latter half of the 20th century. Costs for these works, like the costs for education, soared beyond the possibilities of individual contributions. Governmental assumption of responsibility for benevolence both rendered the necessity of church works doubtful and narrowed the base of contributions. Church organizations as they existed were not well equipped to deal either with modern urban poverty or with the problem of international poverty.


가난한 사람, 병자, 고아, 다른 불우한 사람들에 대한 제도적인 자선활동은 그리스도 교회가 초기부터 행해온 특색이었다. 교회는 이런 방식으로 예수의 치유 선교를 수행하고 있다. 비판받을 점이 전혀 없어 보이는 이 자선활동은 20세기 후반에 와서는 여러 난관에 봉착했다. 자선활동 경비와 교육 경비가 급등하여 가톨릭 교회가 혼자 부담할 수 있는 능력을 넘어선 것이다. 또한 교회조직도 도시의 빈곤이나 국제적인 빈곤문제를 다룰 수 있도록 효율적인 준비를 갖추지 못했다.


4) Church and state arelations.

교회와 국가의 관계

The most important modification in Roman Catholic theory and practice of church-state relations was the declaration of the second Vatican Council in which the Roman Catholic Church recognized the modern, secular, pluralistic nation as a valid political society. Union of church and state had been the common pattern since the era of Constantine, and all pontifical declarations of the 19th century rejected separation of church and state as pernicious. This position was steadfastly maintained in spite of the fact that the union of church and state had been accepted by the Protestant countries of Europe; it reflects a long history of domination of the church by the state and of the church's involvement in political power struggles. The second Vatican Council declared that the Roman Catholic Church is not a political agent and will not ask political support for ecclesiastical ends. A significant change in the Roman attitude toward the state is the council's express declaration of freedom of religion.


교회와 국가의 관계에 대한 로마 가톨릭의 이론과 실천은 제2차 바티칸 공의회의 선언으로 가장 중요한 변화를 맞게 되었다. 이 선언에서 로마 가톨릭 교회는 현대의 세속적이고, 다원적인 국가를 하나의 정당한 정치사회로 인정했다. 또한 제2차 바티칸 공의회는 로마 가톨릭 교회가 정치단체가 아니며, 교회의 목적을 위해 정치적 지원을 요청하지 않을 것임을 선언했다. 국가에 대한 로마 가톨릭의 중요한 태도 변화는 이 공의회가 종교의 자유에 관해 명시적으로 선언한 내용에 나타나 있다.


5) Economic views and practice.

경제적인 견해와 그 실천

In the centuries when the Roman Catholic Church was Christendom, there was a place for every member in the church that corresponded to the individual's place in the social structure. In modern times the church hierarchy became identified with the landed aristocracy; this dangerous identification led the revolutionaries of 18th-century France to attempt to destroy the Roman Catholic Church with other components of the old order. The Roman Catholic Church entered the 19th century with a firm official bias against revolutionary movements, and the brief liberalism of Pius IX was ended with his experiences in the Italian revolution of 1848. The Roman Catholic Church was inflexibly opposed to all forms of Socialism, and its opposition to Marxist Communism was implacable. Thus, the Roman Catholic hierarchy was identified with the new capitalist classes of the industrial society. In many European countries this meant that the church lost membership among the working classes. Leo XIII in Rerum Novarum (1891; "Of New Things") was the first pope to speak against the abuses of capitalism. Social teaching was further elaborated by Pius XI in Quadragesimo Anno (1931; "In the 40th Year"), John XXIII in Mater et Magistra (1961; "Mother and Teacher") and Pacem in Terris (1963; "Peace on Earth"), and Paul VI in Populorum Progressio (1967; "The Progress of Peoples"). Catholic opposition to Socialism has gradually been diminished, although Catholic teaching tends in the direction of the diffusion of capital and not in its nationalization. In some features, however, such as the approval of labour unions, Catholic teaching has reached points that Pius IX would have regarded as Socialism.

In its own practices the Roman Catholic Church has accepted full control over the ownership of property and of productive investments. It does not admit accountability to the laity for its funds, which are managed by the hierarchy; hence the wealth of the Catholic Church has long been a mystery, often attractive to greedy anticlerical governments. Their raids as well as some public disclosures indicate that popular belief exaggerates the wealth of the Catholic Church. Following the second Vatican Council, there was a strong movement in Catholicism for public financial reports.


로마 가톨릭 교회는 실제적으로는 재산의 소유권과 생산적인 투자의 소유권을 완전히 통제하는 것을 용인했다. 가톨릭 교회는 교회 재원에 대한 책임을 평신도에게 맡기지 않고 성직계급이 운영하도록 하고 있다. 따라서 가톨릭 교회의 재산은 오랫동안 비밀로 되어 왔으며, 교권을 반대하는 탐욕스런 세속정부에게는 매력적인 탈취 대상이 되는 경우가 많았다. 세속정부가 가톨릭의 재산을 공개하고 탈취했다는 것은 가톨릭 교회의 재산에 대한 일반인들의 생각이 과장되어 있음을 반증하는 것이기도 하다. 제2차 바티칸 공의회 이후 가톨릭 교회 내에는 재정보고를 공개하자는 강한 움직임이 있었다.


6) The family.


Roman Catholic teaching on the family is conservative and attributes to the family a social and moral centrality that many people think it no longer has. The teaching has grown up around a number of factors, not all of which come from the New Testament.The medieval family (whether that of nobles or commoners) is reflected in the guiding principle of Roman Catholic teaching, the stability of the family. This principle does not admit divorce. The family is preserved by a strong authority structure in which the father is the head; this reflects not only the Old Testament but Roman law. The family, moreover, is child-centred; traditional Catholic teaching makes the primary end of marriage the procreation and rearing of children. Only recently have Catholic theologians begun to speak of mutual love as an end "equally primary." Rigid monogamy was not unrelated to the common and widely tolerated practice of adultery, which the Roman Catholic Church regarded as more tolerable than divorce. The principle of the stability of the family also mirrored a certain tribal view of the family that saw the individual's chief security not in the law and the courts but in kinsmen. Such a view of stability is, however, not well adapted to the mobility of the modern family. Nor is it well adapted to the independence possible to the person who wishes it strongly enough. In the late 20th century the Roman Catholic Church was faced with the problem of preserving for its members the unquestioned values of mutual love and responsibility associated with the family without imposing on it an antiquated authoritarian structure. But the major problem was certainly the practice of birth control. The moral arguments for the Catholic position against birth control had suffered general erosion, and many Catholics regarded the declaration of Paul VI in 1968, reiterating the traditional prohibition, as a blind exercise of authority.


가정에 대한 로마 가톨릭의 가르침은 보수적이어서 가정에 도덕적 중심성을 부여하고 있지만, 많은 현대 사상가들은 이에 동의하지 않고 있다. 20세기 후반에 와서 가톨릭 교회는 낡은 권위주의적 구조를 가정에 강요하지 않으면서도 가정에서 사랑과 책임이라는 절대적인 가치를 보존해야 하는 문제에 봉착하게 되었다. 그러나 가장 중요한 난제 중 하나는 산아제한의 실천이었다. 산아제한을 반대하는 가톨릭 교회의 입장을 뒷받침하는 도덕적 논거는 대체로 그 설득력을 잃어갔으며, 많은 가톨릭 신자들은 전통적인 산아제한 금지를 되풀이한 1968년 교황 파울루스(바오로) 6세의 선언을 맹목적인 권위의 행사로 보기도 하였다.


VI. Roman Catholicism following the second Vatican Council

제2차 바티칸 공의회 이후의 로마 가톨릭 교회

The Roman Catholic Church has been experiencing a renewal that reached its official peak in the second Vatican Council.Renewal has brought benefits, but it has also brought internal disturbances greater than any the church has known since the Protestant Reformation. There has been a clear polarization between liberal and conservative wings of the type that tends to leave no room for moderates. Although such disunity poses a real threat of schism, there have been no group departures except in a few instances. The number of individual departures, however, has been large enough to cause concern. The exact number is unknown, because discontented Catholics in modern times leave quietly.

The Roman Catholic Church has officially abandoned its "one true church" position. It has entered into ecumenical conversations with the Protestant churches that could lead to Christian union; the Catholic Church has expressed a readiness to make doctrinal and disciplinary concessions, but how far these may go is not yet clear. The church has even made gestures of friendliness to Islam and Judaism and does not speak of the great Oriental religions as simple paganism. The openness of the Catholic Church toward social movements has been mentioned; this has taken a surprising form in some unexpected places such as Spain and Latin America. The edge of Catholic opposition to Marxism was for a time taken off, and the Roman see engaged in unobtrusive diplomatic conversations with some Communist governments. A period of increased involvement in international affairs was seen under the leadership of Pope John Paul II in the 1980s. (see also Index: ecumenism)

Problems, however, are more in evidence than progress. The long, latent conflict between hierarchy and lower clergy has become open. Priests are resistant to the traditional total obedience in style of life and ministry. This conflict has come to a focus on the issue of clerical celibacy; although there are no sure statistics, it is a reasonable assumption that at least half of the Catholic clergy wish celibacy to become an option. The discontent with life and ministry has led to a large number of losses in the priesthood and in religious communities, some of which face the possibility of extinction. Much of this discontent revolves around ministry as much as around a way of life; many religious workers feel that the conventional ministries are not reaching enough people and are not touching their most urgent needs. The desire to work "in the world," while hardly alien to the New Testament ministry, is not adaptable to traditional clerical and religious rules. What might appear to be a minor point in some places has become major; priests and religious (women religious in particular, who have had more of a problem) no longer wish to wear the identifying garb; they believe that it immediately becomes an obstacle to personal relations. Actually, there is a widespread but not explicit, perhaps not even recognized, rejection of the traditional use of authority and obedience in Roman Catholic clergy and religious communities. (see also Index: habit)

Roman Catholic liturgy has been profoundly changed. The results have not been altogether satisfactory, but some observers say that the effects of the new liturgy cannot be assessed until a new generation has grown up that knows no other liturgy. On this point minor local schisms have occurred, led by reactionary Catholics wishing to return to the traditional liturgy in Latin. Others find the new liturgy stodgy; but the degree to which liturgy ought to be exciting has never been established.

The place of the laity, like that of the clergy, in church decisions remains uncertain. Bishops, clergy, and laity generally are timid in undertaking a modification in church government for which nothing in their previous church experience has prepared them. They seem hesitant to draw on their experience in government and business, where shared responsibility is the rule rather than the exception. Many Catholics find it difficult to examine the role of their hierarchical officers without also questioning their credibility. Yet the direction of the movements where the problems lie is toward greater responsibility of each member of the Catholic Church--hierarchy, clergy, and laity, each in its own way. (see also priest)



로마 가톨릭 교회가 겪어온 쇄신은 제2차 바티칸 공의회에서 공식적으로 그 절정에 이르렀다. 교회의 쇄신으로 유익한 점도 많았지만, 프로테스탄트 종교개혁 이래로 일찍이 교회가 겪지 못한 가장 심각한 내적 소요가 초래되었다. 제2차 바티칸 공의회 이후 교회 내에는 중재할 여지가 없는 진보파와 보수파의 양극대립이 있어왔다. 이러한 불일치는 실제로 분열의 위험을 안고 있지만 몇몇 사소한 경우를 제외하고는 집단적 이탈은 없었다. 그러나 개인적인 이탈자의 수는 관심을 불러 일으킬 만큼 많아지고 있다.

로마 가톨릭 교회는 자신이 '유일한 참된 교회'라는 입장을 공식적으로 철회했다. 그리고 그리스도 교회의 일치를 도모하고자 개신교와 에큐메니컬한 대화를 시작했다. 가톨릭 교회는 교리와 교회 규율에 대해 양보할 자세가 되어 있음을 표명했으나 어느 정도 양보할 지는 아직 분명하지 않다. 또한 가톨릭 교회 내에서는 진보적인 면보다는 문제점들이 더 많이 드러나고 있다. 오랫동안 잠재되어 왔던 고위성직제도와 일반 성직자 사이의 갈등이 표면화되었다. 사제들은 그들의 생활과 사목에서 전통적으로 중시되어온 장상(長上)에 대한 '절대 순종'에 저항하고 있다. 이 갈등은 성직자의 독신제도에 초점이 모아지고 있다. 확실한 통계는 없지만, 가톨릭 성직자 중 최소한 반 정도는 독신제도를 임의의 선택으로 변경하기를 원하는 것으로 추정하는 것도 큰 무리는 아닐 것이다. 성직자의 생활방식과 사목에 대한 불만은 사제직과 수도단체에 대한 지원자의 격감 등 큰 손실을 초래하게 되었으며, 어떤 수도회는 폐회될 위기를 맞고 있다.

로마 가톨릭의 전례도 상당한 변화를 겪고 있다. 변화의 결과가 모두 만족스러운 것은 아니지만, 어떤 관측통들은 말하기를 새 전례의 효과는 새 세대가 자라나서 그 전례를 알게 될 때까지 평가할 수 없다고 한다. 교회의 의사결정에서 하급 성직자의 위치도 그렇지만 평신도의 위치는 더욱 모호하다. 주교와 하급 성직자, 평신도는 일반적으로 과거의 교회 경험에서 지침을 구할 수 없는 교회 정치의 변화에 소극적 태도를 취한다. 그들은 책임의 공유가 예외로 간주되지 않고 당연한 규칙이 되어야 할 교회의 정치와 사업에서 자신들의 경험을 활용하는 것을 주저하는 것처럼 보인다. 많은 가톨릭 신자들이 고위 성직자들 역할을 심사하는 것은 그들의 신뢰성을 문제삼는 것이나 다름없기 때문에 어려운 일이라고 생각한다. 그럼에도 불구하고 가톨릭 교회의 전반적인 추세는 교회의 각 구성원들, 즉 고위 성직계층, 일반 성직계층, 평신도가 자기 나름대로 보다 큰 책임을 분담하는 방향으로 나아가고 있다.



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This page was last modified 2001/09/23