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종교 탐방

Jesus Christ

예수 그리스도


Times and environment:

The life and ministry of Jesus:

The message of Jesus:

The sufferings and death of Jesus:

The story of Jesus and faith in Jesus:

G. Bornkamm J. J. Pelikan 글 | 尹哲昊 옮김 




Times and environment:

BO REICKE, The New Testament Era (1968, reissued 1978; originally published in German, 1964); ANTHONY E. HARVEY, Jesus and the Constraints of History (1982), a study of the constraints imposed on Jesus by contemporary conditions.


The life and ministry of Jesus:

Valuable surveys of premodern material are provided by ROBERT M. GRANT, The Earliest Lives of Jesus (1961), for the early patristic period; and HARVEY K. McARTHUR, The Quest Through the Centuries (1966), especially for the 14th and 16th centuries. Modern historical study of the Gospels dates from the 18th century and was characterized in the 19th and early 20th centuries by the Life-of-Jesus movement. The literature is authoritatively surveyed in ALBERT SCHWEITZER, The Quest of the Historical Jesus (1910, reissued 1968; originally published in German, 1906); and C.C. McCOWN, The Search for the Real Jesus (1940). JOHN F. O'GRADY, Models of Jesus (1981); and JOHN FERGUSON, Jesus in the Tide of Time: A Historical Study (1980), are studies of interpretations of Jesus in different ages and cultures. MAURICE GOGUEL, The Life of Jesus (1933, reissued 1976; originally published in French, 1932), is a biography especially valuable for the inclusion of detailed evidence frequently assumed in subsequent works. JOSEPH KLAUSNER, Jesus of Nazareth (1925, reissued 1979; originally published in Hebrew, 1922), remains important for its collection of relevant rabbinic materials. SHIRLEY J. CASE, Jesus: A New Biography (1927, reprinted 1968), in spite of its title, is a socio-historical treatment of the subject. Other lives include VINCENT TAYLOR, The Life and Ministry of Jesus (1954); ETHELBERT STAUFFER, Jesus and His Story (1960, originally published in German, 1957); and DAVID FLUSSER, Jesus (1969; originally published in German, 1968). The first half of the 20th century witnessed a marked decline in the appearance of biographies and studies of the historical Jesus. Several factors contributed to the decline, of which the most important was the rise of form criticism in the first quarter of the century as exemplified in MARTIN DIBELIUS, From Tradition to Gospel (1934, reissued 1971; trans. of the rev. 2nd German ed., 1933); and RUDOLF BULTMANN, The History of the Synoptic Tradition, rev. ed. (1968, reissued 1972; originally published in German, 1921). Bultmann's Jesus and the Word (1934, reissued 1958; originally published in German, 1926) presents a so-called encounter with the message of Jesus but without sharp differentiation of that message from the church's "earliest tradition." The period 1950-70 produced a resurgence of interest in the historical Jesus. Stimulus for the resurgence is often credited to a paper by ERNST KASEMANN, "The Problem of the Historical Jesus," in W.J. MONTAGUE (trans.), Essays on New Testament Themes (1964). The "new quest," as it came to be called after JAMES M. ROBINSON, A New Quest of the Historical Jesus (1959, reissued 1983), arose as a question concerning continuity between Jesus and his message, on the one hand, and the early church's proclamation of Christ, on the other. Some of the alternative positions concerning the possibility of a biography of Jesus may be seen in CARL E. BRAATEN and ROY A. HARRISVILLE (eds.), The Historical Jesus and the Kerygmatic Christ (1964), a collection of essays by major figures. Distinctive positions are to be found in ERNST FUCHS, Studies of the Historical Jesus (1964; originally published in German, 1964); JOHN KNOX, The Church and the Reality of Christ (1962); HUGH ANDERSON, Jesus and Christian Origins (1964); LEANDER E. KECK, A Future for the Historical Jesus (1971, reissued 1981); FREDERICK F. BRUCE, Jesus and Christian Origins Outside the New Testament (1974), an annotated list of sources; JAMES P. MACKEY, Jesus, the Man and the Myth: A Contemporary Christology (1979); GEORGE VERMES, Jesus the Jew: a Historian's Reading of the Gospels (1974), the thesis that Jesus was a Galilean Hasid; and EDWARD SCHILLEBEECKX, Jesus: An Experiment in Christology (1979; originally published in Dutch, 1975), a review and interpretation of modern scholarship. Accurate popular presentations are in HEINZ ZAHRNT, The Historical Jesus (1963; originally published in German, 1960); and in the moderately conservative JOACHIM JEREMIAS, The Problem of the Historical Jesus (1964, reissued 1972; originally published in German, 1960). The entire trend of Gospel study since the rise of form criticism is challenged by BIRGER GERHARDSSON in Memory and Manuscript (1961), who argues that Jesus himself taught his disciples, in the manner of a Jewish rabbi, to memorize and transmit traditions in a fixed form. J. ARTHUR BAIRD, Audience Criticism and the Historical Jesus (1969), explores the use of the computer in literary analysis but is somewhat ambiguous with respect to total historical methodology. A standard study is GÜNTHER BORNKAMM, Jesus of Nazareth (1960, reissued 1975; originally published in German, 1956). ROLAND H. BAINTON, Behold the Christ (1974), discusses works of art representative of various interpretations of Christ.


The message of Jesus:

Many of the titles listed in the preceding section include discussions of the teachings of Jesus. NORMAN PERRIN, Rediscovering the Teaching of Jesus (1967, reissued 1976), is an important technical introduction. THOMAS W. MANSON, The Sayings of Jesus (1949, reissued 1979), is a valuable commentary on the so-called Q material. Since JOHANNES WEISS, Jesus' Proclamation of the Kingdom of God (1971; originally published in German, 1892), it has been recognized that the eschatological Kingdom of God was the centre of Jesus' message. Whether the message implied a wholly futuristic expectation, a "realized" eschatology, or a future kingdom with present manifestations is still discussed. Convenient summaries of alternative interpretations are presented in NORMAN PERRIN, The Kingdom of God in the Teaching of Jesus (1963; reissued 1975); and GÖSTA LUNDSTRÖM, The Kingdom of God in the Teaching of Jesus (1963; originally published in Swedish, 1947). Perrin's work also includes a survey of interpretations of the phrase "Son of man" and other titles related to Jesus' vocation. Representative modern studies include WERNER G. KÜMMEL, Promise and Fulfillment (1957; originally published in German, 1945); RUDOLF SCHNACKENBURG, God's Rule and Kingdom (1963; originally published in German, 1959); GEORGE ELDON LADD, Jesus and the Kingdom (1964), written from a conservative perspective; and H.E. TÖDT, The Son of Man in the Synoptic Tradition (1965; originally published in German, 1959). Modern investigation of the parables derives from C.H. DODD, The Parables of the Kingdom, rev. ed. (1961). A definitive work is JOACHIM JEREMIAS, The Parables of Jesus, 3rd rev. ed. (1972; originally published in German, 1947). DAN O. VIA, The Parables (1967, reissued 1977), is one of several books in which literary critical insights are employed to advance interpretation beyond strictly historical critical study. ETA LINNEMANN, Jesus of the Parables (1967; originally published in German, 1961), advances views along the lines proposed by Ernst Fuchs. MARTIN DIBELIUS, The Sermon on the Mount (1940); HANS WINDISCH, The Meaning of the Sermon on the Mount (1951; originally published in German, 1929); and WILLIAM D. DAVIES, The Setting of the Sermon on the Mount (1964, reissued 1976), offer varying interpretations of the most familiar body of Jesus' teaching. See also MILAN MACHOVEC, A Marxist Looks at Jesus (1976; originally published in German, 1972), a sympathetic study; JON SOBRINO, Christology at the Crossroads: A Latin American Approach (1978; originally published in Spanish, 1976), representative of "liberation theology"; ROSEMARY R. RUETHER, To Change the World: Christology and Cultural Criticism (1981), a feminist Christology; CHARLES B. KETCHAM, A Theology of Encounter: The Ontological Ground for a New Christology (1978), an existentialist's Christology; and RUSSEL PREGEANT, Christology Beyond Dogma (1978), a hermeneutical study of Matthew.


The sufferings and death of Jesus:

EDUARD LOHSE, History of the Suffering and Death of Jesus Christ (1967; originally published in German, 1964), provides a convenient overview of the problems. Of the massive literature on the trial and Crucifixion, JOSEPH BLINZLER, The Trial of Jesus (1959; trans. from 2nd rev. German ed., 1955); and PAUL WINTER, On the Trial of Jesus, 2nd ed. (1974), have been very influential. The range of scholarly opinion about the trial is well represented by eight responsible essays in Judaism, 20:6-74 (1971).


The story of Jesus and faith in Jesus:

REGINALD H. FULLER, The Mission and Achievement of Jesus (1954, reissued 1967), and The Foundations of New Testament Christology (1965), partly because of the author's shift in viewpoint, exhibit a range of opinion on the relation of Jesus' sense of vocation to the church's Christology. A more difficult study is that of FERDINAND HAHN, The Titles of Jesus in Christology (1969; originally published in German, 1963). 

      예수 그리스도


그리스도의 생애 : 줄톤 J. 쉰, 강연중 역, 성요셉출판사, 1993

예수 : 서중석, 동아출판사, 1992

예수그리스도의 수난사(현대신서 150) : Eduard Lohse, 진연섭 역, 대한기독교서회, 1991

역사적 예수 연구 : E. 케제만, 강한표 역, 대한기독교서회, 1991

예수현상학 : 곽노순, 대한기독교서회, 1991

예수의 일대기 : W. 바클레이, 이희숙 역, 종로서적, 1991

예수 그리스도와 문화 : 대한예수교장로회총회 편집부 편, 대한예수교장로회총회, 1991

예수 그리스도의 생애와 교훈 : 제임스 S. 스튜어트, 김득중 역, 컨콜디아사, 1991

예수와 그의 시대 : 브라운, 김광식 역, 대한기독교서회, 1991

예수의 생애 : 에르네스트 르낭, 최명관 역, 을유문화사, 1989

예수의 죽음 : G. 프리드리히, 박영옥 역, 한국신학연구소, 1987

예수의 생애 연구사 : 앨버트 슈바이처, 허혁 역, 대한기독교서회, 1986

예수의 사상과 생애 : W. 바클리, 정용섭 역, 대한기독교서회, 1984

예수님과 기독교 기원 : F. F. 부르스, 한균 역, 생명의말씀사, 1984

예수 : 그롤 렌버그, 이현주 역, 종로서적, 1984

예수라는 사나이 : 田川建三, 김명식 역, 한울림, 1983

그리스도교 이전의 예수 : 앨버트 놀런, 정한교 역, 분도출판사, 1980

예수의 형태 - 역사적 접근에 의한 예수 이해 : 荒井獻犬, 서남동 역, 대한기독교서회, 1976

해방자 예수-그리스도의 역사적 증언 : 안병무, 현대사상사, 1975

예수의 생애 : 遠藤周作, 정종화 역, 대한기독교서회, 1975

Jesus and the Constraints of History : Anthony E. Harvey, 1982

Behold the Christ : Roland H. Bainton, 1974

The New Testament Era : Bo Reicke, 1968 (reissued 1978)

Rediscovering the Teaching of Jesus : Norman Perrin, 1967 (reissued 1976)

The Problem of the Historical Jesus : Joachim Jeremias, 1964 (reissued 1972)

The Kingdom of God in the Teaching of Jesus : Norman Perrin, 1963 (reissued 1975)

The Mission and Achievement of Jesus : Reginald H. Fuller, 1954 (reissued 1967)

The Sayings of Jesus : Thomas W. Manson, 1949 (reissued 1979)

The Life of Jesus : Maurice Goguel, 1933 (reissued 1976)

Jesus:A New Biography : Shirley J. Case, 1927 (reprinted 1968)

Jesus of Nazareth : Joseph Klausner, 1925 (reissued 1979)


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