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V. Bibliography



1. General:

EINAR MOLLAND, Christendom: The Christian Churches, Their Doctrines, Constitutional Forms, and Ways of Worship (1959, originally published in Swedish, 1953); JOHN DILLENBERGER and CLAUDE WELCH, Protestant Christianity Interpreted Through Its Development, 2nd ed. (1988); JOHN S. WHALE, The Protestant Tradition (1955, reprinted 1962), a summary of the creedal positions of Protestant bodies; WILHELM PAUCK, The Heritage of the Reformation, rev. and enl. ed. (1961, reissued 1968), essays on the theological and practical impact of Protestantism; B.A. GERRISH, The Old Reformation and the New: Essays on the Reformation Heritage (1982), a study connecting the theology of the early years of Protestantism with recent developments; ROBERT McAFEE BROWN, The Spirit of Protestantism (1961, reissued 1974), a summary of the main themes of Protestant life; MARTIN E. MARTY, Protestantism (1972, reissued 1974), with extensive bibliographic essays; JAMES HASTINGS NICHOLS, Primer for Protestants (1947, reissued 1971), a brief survey of Protestant history and theology for the layperson; JOHN B. COBB, JR., Varieties of Protestantism (1960), a theological analysis of alternatives in Protestantism, and Living Options in Protestant Theology: A Survey of Methods (1962, reissued 1986); ROGER MEHL, The Sociology of Protestantism (1970; originally published in French, 1965), an excellent survey of Protestant sociology; JAROSLAV PELIKAN, The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, vol. 4, Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700) (1984), a magisterial approach; GEORGE H. WILLIAMS, The Radical Reformation (1962), a comprehensive and authoritative work in English on this subject; FRANKLIN HAMLIN LITTELL, The Origins of Sectarian Protestantism: A Study of the Anabaptist View of the Church (1964, reprinted 1968), a historical analysis of the main themes in the radical Reformation; LOUIS BOUYER, The Spirit and Forms of Protestantism (1955, reprinted 1968; originally published in French, 1954); J. LESLIE DUNSTAN (ed.), Protestantism (1961, reissued 1969), a study combining sources with narrative and interpretation; PAUL TILLICH, The Protestant Era, trans. from German (1948, reissued 1951), a collection of essays, one of which discusses the "end of the Protestant era"; CHARLES W. KEGLEY, Protestantism in Transition (1965), a theologian's survey of Protestant tendencies after the mid-20th century; ERNST TROELTSCH, Protestantism and Progress: The Significance of Protestantism for the Rise of the Modern World (1986; originally published in German, 2nd ed., 1911), a classic interpretation of Protestant contributions to modernity; MAX WEBER, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1930, reissued 1985; originally published in German, 1904), a much debated study of the link between Protestantism and the rise of capitalism; JOHN A. HARDON, The Protestant Churches of America, rev. ed. (1969), a summary by a Roman Catholic of Protestant doctrinal positions; FREDERICK E. MAYER, The Religious Bodies of America, 4th ed. rev. by ARTHUR CARL PIEPKORN (1961), denomination-by-denomination study of doctrinal positions in American religious groups; ARTHUR CARL PIEPKORN, Profiles in Belief: The Religious Bodies of the United States and Canada, vol. 2, Protestant Denominations (1978), vol. 3, Holiness and Pentecostal (1979), and vol. 4, Evangelical, Fundamentalist, and Other Christian Bodies (1979), an extensive review of American Protestant bodies; WINTHROP S. HUDSON, American Protestantism (1961, reprinted 1972), a brief survey of Protestant history in America; JERALD C. BRAUER, Protestantism in America: A Narrative History, rev. ed. (1965, reprinted 1974), a presentation of the main themes of American Protestant history; ANDREW L. DRUMMOND, Story of American Protestantism (1949, reissued 1951), a British view of Protestant history in the United States; and MARTIN E. MARTY, Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America (1970, reprinted 1977), written for the nation's bicentennial. Newsworthy developments in the Protestant Church are chronicled in Christian Century (weekly).

2. History:

KENNETH SCOTT LATOURETTE, A History of Christianity, rev. ed., 2 vol. (1975), with useful bibliographies; and ÉMILE G. LÉONARD, Histoire générale du protestantisme, 3 vol. (1961-64)--vol. 1 has also appeared in English with the title, A History of Protestantism (1968). Additional references may be found in OWEN CHADWICK, The History of the Church: A Select Bibliography, 3rd ed. (1973).

For Puritanism, see WILLIAM HALLER, The Rise of Puritanism: or, The Way to the New Jerusalem as Set Forth in Pulpit and Press from Thomas Cartwright to John Lilburne and John Milton, 1570-1643 (1938, reissued 1984); CHRISTOPHER HILL, Society and Puritanism in Pre-Revolutionary England (1964, reissued 1986); PATRICK COLLINSON, The Elizabethan Puritan Movement (1967); SAMUEL ELIOT MORISON, The Intellectual Life of Colonial New England, 2nd ed. (1956, reprinted 1980); and FRANCIS J. BREMER, The Puritan Experiment: New England and Society from Bradford to Edwards (1976). For Arminianism, see A.W. HARRISON, The Beginnings of Arminianism to the Synod of Dort (1926); and CARL BANGS, Arminius: A Study in the Dutch Reformation, 2nd ed. (1985). For Pietism, see KOPPEL S. PINSON, Pietism as a Factor in the Rise of German Nationalism (1934, reissued 1968); and F. ERNEST STOEFFLER, The Rise of Evangelical Pietism (1965, reprinted 1971), and German Pietism During the Eighteenth Century (1973). For Protestant missionary expansion, see KENNETH SCOTT LATOURETTE, A History of the Expansion of Christianity, vol. 3-7 (1940-45); and STEPHEN NEILL, A History of Christian Missions, 2nd ed. rev. by OWEN CHADWICK (1986). For the 19th and 20th centuries, see KENNETH SCOTT LATOURETTE, Christianity in a Revolutionary Age, 5 vol. (1958-62, reissued 1973); STEPHEN NEILL (ed.), Twentieth Century Christianity: A Survey of Modern Religious Trends by Leading Churchmen, rev. ed. (1963); and DAVID B. BARRETT (ed.), World Christian Encyclopedia: A Comparative Study of Churches and Religions in the Modern World, AD 1900-2000 (1982).

For American Protestantism, see H. SHELTON SMITH, ROBERT T. HANDY, and LEFFERTS A. LOETSCHER, American Christianity: An Historical Interpretation with Representative Documents, 2 vol. (1960-63), a general guide; E.S. GAUSTAD, A Documentary History of Religion in America, 2 vol. (1982-83), a comprehensive overview; WILLIAM WARREN SWEET, The Story of Religion in America, 2nd rev. ed. (1950); WINTHROP S. HUDSON, American Protestantism (1961, reprinted 1972); and R.T. HANDY, A Christian America: Protestant Hopes and Historical Realities, 2nd ed. rev. and enl. (1984), on cultural intentions. For the social Gospel, see C.H. HOPKINS, The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism, 1865-1915 (1940, reprinted 1982). For churches under the Nazis, see J.S. CONWAY, The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, 1933-45 (1968); and ARTHUR C. COCHRANE, The Church's Confession Under Hitler, 2nd ed. (1976), which accents resistance documents. For the ecumenical movement, see RUTH ROUSE and STEPHEN NEILL (eds.), A History of the Ecumenical Movement, 1517-1948, 3rd ed. (1986); and HAROLD E. FEY (ed.), A History of the Ecumenical Movement, 1948-1968: The Ecumenical Advance, 2nd ed. (1986). Research findings related to primarily American Protestant church history are published in Church History (quarterly).

3. Lutheran churches:

CONRAD BERGENDOFF, The Church of the Lutheran Reformation (1967), a survey of Lutheranism, but especially useful for information on Lutheranism in the Scandinavian countries, in a very readable narrative with bibliography; and JAROSLAV PELIKAN, From Luther to Kierkegaard: A Study in the History of Theology (1950, reprinted 1963), a brief history of developments in Lutheran theology to the mid-19th century. JULIUS BODENSIECK (ed.), The Encyclopedia of the Lutheran Church, 3 vol. (1965), is the standard English reference work on Lutheranism, although articles vary from the scholarly to the propagandistic.

On Lutheranism in the United States, see SYDNEY E. AHLSTROM, "Theology in America: A Historical Survey," in JAMES WARD SMITH and A. LELAND JAMISON, Religion in American Life, vol. 1, The Shaping of American Religion (1961), pp. 232-321, a survey that sets Lutheran theology in the context of other developments; and ABDEL R. WENTZ, A Basic History of Lutheranism in America, rev. ed. (1964), a standard work on the major developments. E. CLIFFORD NELSON, The Rise of World Lutheranism: An American Perspective (1982), is a discussion of the cooperation among 20th-century Lutheran churches. E. CLIFFORD NELSON (ed.), Lutherans in North America, rev. ed. (1980), is a study on the various periods of American history.

Works on Lutheran teachings include THEODORE G. TAPPERT (ed. and trans.), The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church (1959, reprinted 1987), official translation; EDMUND SCHLINK, Theology of the Lutheran Confessions (1961, reissued 1975; originally published in German, 1940), a dialectical approach to Lutheran theology; WILHELM MAURER, Historical Commentary on the Augsburg Confession (1986; originally published in German, 2 vol., 1976-78), a thorough work on the basic Lutheran document; PAUL TILLICH, Systematic Theology, 3 vol. (1951-63, reprinted 1973), a systematics by the most original Lutheran theologian of the 20th century; and KARL FERDINAND MÜLLER and WALTER BLANKENBURG, Leiturgia: Handbuch des evangelischen Gottesdienstes, 5 vol. (1954-70), a historical and theological examination of the Lutheran service.

4. Reformed and Presbyterian churches:

WILLIAM J. BOUWSMA, John Calvin: A Sixteenth-Century Portrait (1988), which places Calvin in his contemporary context; JOHN T. McNEILL, The History and Character of Calvinism (1954, reissued 1973), a comprehensive treatment of the rise and development of Presbyterian and Reformed churches, with an excellent bibliography; JAMES HASTINGS NICHOLS, Corporate Worship in the Reformed Tradition (1968), an overview of the variety of forms developed in the Reformed tradition of the public worship of God; HEINRICH HEPPE, Reformed Dogmatics Set Out and Illustrated from the Sources, rev. and ed. by ERNST BIZER (1950, reprinted 1978; originally published in German, 1861), a work enabling the reader to get beyond Calvin's Institutes to some acquaintance with other Reformed theologians of the 16th and 17th centuries; ROBERT McAFEE BROWN, Theology in a New Key: Responding to Liberation Themes (1978), and Unexpected News: Reading the Bible with Third World Eyes (1981), interpretations of Third World theology; JOHN H. LEITH, An Introduction to Reformed Tradition: A Way of Being the Christian Community, rev. ed. (1981); ARTHUR C. COCHRANE (ed.), Reformed Confessions of the 16th Century (1966), 12 classic confessions of the 16th century, with historical introductions; and THOMAS F. TORRANCE (ed. and trans.), The School of Faith: The Catechisms of the Reformed Church (1959), 10 catechisms of the 16th and 17th centuries. Useful periodicals include Reformed World (quarterly), published by the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (Presbyterian and Congregational), which reports on the life and work of Reformed and Presbyterian churches throughout the world; and American Presbyterians: Journal of Presbyterian History (quarterly), on all aspects of American Presbyterian history.

5. Anglican Communion:

STEPHEN C. NEILL, Anglicanism, rev. ed. (1977), the most comprehensive treatment of Anglican history; JOHN R.H. MOORMAN, A History of the Church in England, 3rd ed. (1973, reissued 1980), the basic facts about Anglicanism's mother church; MARION J. HATCHETT, Commentary on the American Prayer Book (1981), a detailed examination of Anglican worship and its rationale; JAMES T. ADDISON, The Episcopal Church in the United States, 1789-1931 (1951, reissued 1969), the most thorough treatment of American Anglicanism; and PAUL A. WELSBY, A History of the Church of England, 1945-1980 (1984, reissued 1986), which explains recent changes in the Church of England. See also RAYMOND W. ALBRIGHT, A History of the Protestant Episcopal Church (1964), the standard story of American Episcopalianism.

6. Baptists:

ROBERT G. TORBET, A History of the Baptists, 3rd ed. (1963, reprinted 1973), the most complete account of the Baptists; H. LEON McBETH, The Baptist Heritage (1987), a comprehensive history of four centuries of Baptist witness; ALFRED C. UNDERWOOD, A History of the English Baptists (1947), which gives major attention to Baptist beginnings; JAMES E. WOOD, JR., Baptists and the American Experience (1976), a collection of essays; WINTHROP S. HUDSON, Baptists in Transition: Individualism and Christian Responsibility (1979); and ALBERT W. WARDIN, JR., Baptist Atlas (1980), international in scope. See also JAMES MELVIN WASHINGTON, Frustrated Fellowship: The Black Baptist Quest for Social Power (1986); and WILLIAM H. BRACKNEY (ed.), Baptist Life and Thought, 1600-1980: A Source Book (1983). NORMAN H. MARING and WINTHROP S. HUDSON, A Baptist Manual of Polity and Practice (1963), gives details of ecclesiastical organization. Baptist History and Heritage (quarterly) deals primarily with Southern Baptists.

7. Congregationalists:

WILLISTON WALKER, The Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism (1893, reprinted 1960); GEOFFREY F. NUTTALL, Visible Saints: The Congregational Way, 1640-1660 (1957); RAYMOND P. STEARNS, Congregationalism in the Dutch Netherlands: The Rise and Fall of the English Congregational Classis, 1621-1635 (1940); GAIUS GLENN ATKINS and FREDERICK L. FAGLEY, History of American Congregationalism (1942); WILLIAM WARREN SWEET, Religion in Colonial America (1942, reissued 1965); DOUGLAS HORTON, Congregationalism: A Study in Church Polity (1952), and The United Church of Christ: Its Origins, Organization, and Role in the World Today (1962); LOUIS H. GUNNEMANN, The Shaping of the United Church of Christ: An Essay in the History of American Christianity (1977), which looks at the merger of Congregationalism with the Evangelical and Reformed Church; R. TUDUR JONES, Congregationalism in England, 1662-1962 (1962); and BROR WALAN, Församlingstanken i Svenska missionsförbundet: en studie i de nyevangeliska rörelsens sprängning och Svenska missionsförbundets utveckling (1964), a study of the Covenant Church of Sweden, with an English summary. Modern interpretative essays include DANIEL T. JENKINS, Congregationalism: A Restatement (1954); ERIK ROUTLEY, English Religious Dissent (1960); and NORMAN GOODALL (ed.), Der Kongregationalismus (1973).

8. Friends:

Good introductions to Quakerism may be found in FRIENDS WORLD COMMITTEE FOR CONSULTATION, Handbook of the Religious Society of Friends, 5th ed. (1967); and in the interpretation by D. ELTON TRUEBLOOD, The People Called Quakers (1966, reissued 1971). The standard histories are WILLIAM CHARLES BRAITHWAITE, The Beginnings of Quakerism, 2nd ed. rev. by HENRY J. CADBURY (1955, reissued 1970), and a companion volume, The Second Period of Quakerism, 2nd ed. rev. by HENRY J. CADBURY (1961, reissued 1979); and RUFUS M. JONES, The Quakers in the American Colonies (1911, reissued 1966), and The Later Periods of Quakerism, 2 vol. (1921, reprinted 1970). More specialized works include ELIZABETH ISICHEI, Victorian Quakers (1970); RICHARD T. VANN, The Social Development of English Quakerism, 1655-1755 (1969); JACK D. MARIETTA, The Reformation of American Quakerism, 1748-1783 (1984); BARRY REAY, The Quakers and the English Revolution (1985); and MARY MAPLES DUNN and RICHARD S. DUNN (eds.), The Papers of William Penn (1981- ), with 4 vol. published by 1987. The masterpiece of Quaker theology is ROBERT BARCLAY, Apology for the True Christian Divinity (1678, reissued 1967; originally published in Latin, 1676). WILLIAM CHARLES BRAITHWAITE, Spiritual Guidance in the Experience of the Society of Friends (1909, reissued 1941), best explains how Friends' polity should work. See also GLADYS WILSON, Quaker Worship: An Introductory Historical Study of the English Friends' Meeting (1952); and CLARENCE E. PICKETT, For More Than Bread: An Autobiographical Account of Twenty-Two Years Work with the American Friends Service Committee (1953). Quaker social thought on contemporary issues may be found in STELLA ALEXANDER (comp.), Quaker Testimony Against Slavery and Racial Discrimination: An Anthology (1958); and Towards a Quaker View of Sex: An Essay, rev. ed. (1964, reprinted 1976), published by the Friends Home Service Committee.

9. Methodists:

GORDON RUPP, Religion in England, 1688-1791 (1986), on the background and rise of Methodism; RUPERT DAVIES, GORDON RUPP, and A. RAYMOND GEORGE (eds.), A History of the Methodist Church in Great Britain, 4 vol. (1966-88), authoritative for history, doctrine, and missions; EMORY STEVENS BUCKE (ed.), The History of American Methodism, 3 vol. (1964), comprehensive and authoritative; RUPERT DAVIES, Methodism, 2nd rev. ed. (1985), a general survey, chiefly from the British point of view; UMPHREY LEE and WILLIAM WARREN SWEET, A Short History of Methodism (1956), concerned mainly with American Methodism; V.H.H. GREEN, The Young Mr. Wesley (1961, reissued 1963), a critical study of Wesley's Oxford days; MARTIN SCHMIDT, John Wesley: A Theological Biography, 2 vol. in 3 (1962-73; originally published in German, 2 vol., 1953-66); RICHARD P. HEITZENRATER, The Elusive Mr. Wesley, 2 vol. (1984), with material by Wesley and by his contemporaries and biographers; A.C. OUTLER (ed.), The Works of John Wesley, vol. 1-4 (1984-87), a collection of his sermons; COLIN W. WILLIAMS, John Wesley's Theology Today (1960, reissued 1969), a systematic exposition; RUPERT DAVIES, What Methodists Believe, 2nd ed. (1988), Methodist beliefs in their ecumenical setting; GERALD F. MOEDE, The Office of Bishop in Methodism (1965), a history of constitutional developments in American Methodism; WADE C. BARCLAY, History of Methodist Missions, 4 vol. (1949-73), about American overseas missions; JOHN KENT, The Age of Disunity (1966), on division and reunion in British Methodism; BERNARD SEMMEL, The Methodist Revolution (1973), the social, economic, and political effect of Methodism on Britain; JOHN M. MOORE, The Long Road to Methodist Union (1943), on the reunion of American Methodism; and JOHN MUNSEY TURNER, Conflict and Reconciliation: Studies in Methodism and Ecumenism in England, 1740-1982 (1985). See also METHODIST CHURCH (GREAT BRITAIN), The Methodist Service Book (1975), and Hymns and Psalms (1983), worship in British Methodism. Aspects of the church's history are discussed in Methodist History (quarterly).

10. Disciples of Christ:

LEROY GARRETT, The Stone-Campbell Movement: An Anecdotal History of Three Churches (1981), which gives major attention to the 19th century; JAMES DeFOREST MURCH, Christians Only: A History of the Restoration Movement (1962), reflecting an independent viewpoint; and WILLIAM E. TUCKER and LESTER G. McALLISTER, Journey in Faith: A History of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) (1975), centring on the cooperative stream. Biographical studies include WILLIAM GARRETT WEST, Barton Warren Stone: Early American Advocate of Christian Unity (1954); and LESTER G. McALLISTER, Thomas Campbell: Man of the Book (1954). Beliefs, worship, and organization are treated in ALEXANDER CAMPBELL, The Christian System, in Reference to the Union of Christians and a Restoration of Primitive Christianity as Plead in the Current Reformation, 2nd ed. (1839, reprinted 1980), the classic summary of Campbell's theology; ROYAL HUMBERT (ed.), A Compend of Alexander Campbell's Theology (1961), with critical and historical commentary; KEITH WATKINS, The Breaking of Bread: An Approach to Worship for the Christian Churches (Disciples of Christ) (1966), a comprehensive, historical, and theological analysis; DAVID EDWIN HARRELL, JR., A Social History of the Disciples of Christ, 2 vol. (1966-73); and KENNETH LAWRENCE (ed.), Classic Themes of Disciples Theology: Rethinking the Traditional Affirmations of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) (1986). See also Mid-Stream: An Ecumenical Journal (quarterly).

11. Unitarians and Universalists:

EARL MORSE WILBUR, A History of Unitarianism, 2 vol. (1945), which remains basic for understanding Unitarianism; C. GORDON BOLAM et al., The English Presbyterians, from Elizabethan Puritanism to Modern Unitarianism (1968); CONRAD WRIGHT, The Beginnings of Unitarianism in America (1955, reissued 1976), which portrays the 18th century; and CONRAD WRIGHT (ed.), A Stream of Light: A Sesquicentennial History of American Unitarianism (1975). RICHARD EDDY, Universalism in America, 3rd ed., 2 vol. (1891-94), still useful, has been followed by RUSSELL E. MILLER, The Larger Hope, vol. 1, The First Century of the Universalist Church in America, 1770-1870 (1979), and vol. 2, The Second Century of the Universalist Church in America, 1870-1970 (1985). ERNEST CASSARA (ed.), Universalism in America: A Documentary History, 2nd ed. (1984); and GEORGE HUNTSTON WILLIAMS, American Universalism: A Bicentennial Historical Essay, 2nd ed. (1976), are important supplements to Miller. DAVID ROBINSON, The Unitarians and the Universalists (1985), is a study of the merged denominations.

12. Evangelicals, Fundamentalists, and Pentecostals:

LEONARD I. SWEET, The Evangelical Tradition in America (1984), which includes an extensive superior bibliography on all phases of the movements in the United States; WILLIAM G. McLOUGHLIN (ed.), The American Evangelicals, 1800-1900 (1968, reissued 1976), an anthology with a helpful introduction; GEORGE M. MARSDEN, Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth Century Evangelicalism, 1870-1925 (1980, reprinted 1982), the most important work on the subject; DEAN M. KELLEY, Why Conservative Churches Are Growing: A Study in Sociology of Religion, new ed. (1977, reprinted 1986), a landmark work signaling a power shift in the United States; CHARLES EDWIN JONES, A Guide to the Study of the Holiness Movement (1974), and A Guide to the Study of the Pentecostal Movement (1983), which provide access to important materials; and ROBERT MAPES ANDERSON, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (1979), dealing with the early years of the movement.



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