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4 Bibliography


4.1 General.

HEINRICH EMIL BRUNNER, Dogmatik, vol. 1 (1946; Eng. trans., Dogmatics, vol. 1, The Christian Doctrine of God, 1949), advocates the primacy of Scripture over tradition; OWEN CHADWICK, From Bossuet to Newman: The Idea of Doctrinal Development (1957), an excellent survey of the gradual shift from "the classical consciousness" of identity in doctrine (Bossuet) to a "historical consciousness" of growth and continuity (Newman); ADOLF VON HARNACK, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, 3rd ed., 3 vol. (1893; Eng. trans., History of Dogma, 7 vol., 1900, reprinted 1961), a massive exposition of the thesis that Christian dogma represents the process of Hellenization of the original Gospel, hence a deviation; JOHN HENRY NEWMAN, An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, new ed. (1878), a classical statement of the emergence of the historical consciousness within the Catholic tradition; J. PELIKAN, Development of Christian Doctrine: Some Historical Prolegomena (1969), an important statement of the interaction of Scripture and tradition in the formation of Christian doctrines and dogmas; FREDERICK J. STRENG, Understanding Religious Man (1969), an excellent summary of the common elements in religious experience, including those relating to doctrine and dogma; R.C. ZAEHNER, Concordant Discord: The Interdependence of Faiths (1970), helpful insights as to the various ideas of authority in the major religions of the world.


4.2 Creation.

Cosmogonic myths: CHARLES H. LONG, Alpha: The Myths of Creation (1963), gives examples of various types of cosmogonic myths from different cultures. For ancient Near Eastern myths, see Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, ed. by JAMES B. PRITCHARD, 3rd ed. with suppl. (1969). JOHANNES PEDERSEN, Israel, 4 vol. (Eng. trans. 1926-40), is a cultural-religious study that shows the relationship between creation myth, land, and kinship system. For the nature and structure of myths and symbols, see ERNST CASSIRER, Philosophie der symbolischen Formen, 4 vol. (1953-56; Eng. trans., The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms, 3 vol., 1953-55); and JOAN O'BRIEN and WILFRED MAJOR, In the Beginning: Creation Myths from Ancient Mesopotamia, Israel, and Greece (1982).


4.3 The development and structure of Greek myths:

JOHN BURNET, Early Greek Philosophy, 4th ed. (1930, reprinted 1963), is a well-written interpretation of the pre-Socratic myths of creation. ARNOLD EHRHARDT, The Beginning (1968), shows the common structure of the cosmologies of the Gospel According to John and pre-Socratic thinkers.


4.4 Christian doctrine:

For a theological history of the Christian doctrine of creation in its variety and continuity, see JAROSLAV PELIKAN, Development of Christian Doctrine (1969), The Christian Tradition (1971), and Historical Theology: Continuity and Change in Christian Doctrine (1971). JOHN MACQUARRIE, Principles of Christian Theology (1966), presents a structural and systematic analysis of the elements of Christian theology, showing how the doctrine of creation fits into theological systems.


4.5 Islam:

DE LACY O'LEARY, Arabic Thought and Its Place in History, rev. ed. (1939, reprinted 1963), deals with the internal and external sources of Arabic philosophy and cosmology. SEYYED HOSSEIN NASR, An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines (1964), explicates a tradition in Arabic thought that expresses creation in symbolic and cosmological images.


4.6 Zoroastrianism:

Several Zoroastrian myths and doctrines of creation are found in R.C. ZAEHNER, The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961).


4.7 Chinese philosophy:

ARTHUR F. WRIGHT (ed.), Studies in Chinese Thought (1953), brings together 10 essays on various aspects of Chinese thought; most valuable is DERK BODDE, "Harmony and Conflict in Chinese Philosophy," pp. 19-80. For a history of Chinese philosophical speculation as it relates to cosmogony and cosmology, see FUNG YU-LAN, A History of Chinese Philosophy, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1952-53).


4.8 Indian philosophy:

Speculations about creation in the various schools of Indian philosophy can be found in SURENDRANATH DAS GUPTA, A History of Indian Philosophy, 5 vol. (1922-55). ALAIN DANIELOU, Le Polythéisme hindou (1960; Eng. trans., Hindu Polytheism, 1964), is a description and interpretation of the gods of Hinduism in relationship to their philosophical meaning. T.R.V. MURTI, The Central Philosophy of Buddhism (1955), is an explication of the Madhyamika system of Buddhist philosophy that denies creation.


4.9 Comparative works:

HAJIME NAKAMURA, Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples (1964), is a comparative work showing the similarities and contrasts between Indian, Chinese, Tibetan, and Japanese modes of thought especially as they concern creation. C.F. VON WEIZSACKER, The Relevance of Science: Creation and Cosmogony (1964), deals with the evolution of thought about creation from myth to scientific theory. CHARLES HARTSHORNE and WILLIAM REESE (eds.), Philosophers Speak of God (1953), explores the rational bases for several conceptions of God and creation in Eastern and Western thought.


4.10 Eschatology.

General: M. ELIADE, Le Mythe de l'éternel retour (1949; Eng. trans., The Myth of the Eternal Return, 1954), an internationally recognized standard work; T. ROSZAK, The Making of a Counter Culture (1969), a discussion of the formation of secular messianic movements in modern society; W.D. WALLIS, Messiahs: Their Role in Civilization (1943); GAYRAUD S. WILMORE, Last Things First (1982), a scholarly discussion of eschatology as it has existed in various cultures and religions.


4.11 Biblical:

R.H. CHARLES, Eschatology: The Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, Judaism and Christianity (1899, reprinted 1963), a comparison of ideas; O. CULLMANN, Christus und die Zeit, 3rd ed. (1962; Eng. trans., Christ and Time, 1962); R.K. BULTMANN, History and Eschatology (1957), an existentialist interpretation of eschatology; P.S. MINEAR, The Christian Hope and the Second Coming (1954), an integral biblical view; R.J. ZWI WERBLOWSKY, "Messianism in Jewish History," Journal of World History, 11:30-45 (1968), with a bibliography; and N.R.C. COHN, The Pursuit of the Millennium, 2nd ed. (1961; rev. paperback ed., 1970).


4.12 Theological and philosophical:

M. SCHMAUS, Von den letzten Dingen (1948), the best Roman Catholic treatise on eschatology; N. BERDYAEV, The Beginning and the End (1957, orig. pub. in Russian, 1947), Russian Orthodox philosophy of religion; J.A.T. ROBINSON, In the End, God (1968), an introduction to this subject; P. TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, Le Phénomene humain (1956; Eng. trans., The Phenomenon of Man, 1959), a discussion combining eschatology with the theory of evolution; J. MOLTMANN, Theologie der Hoffnung, 8th ed. (1964; Eng. trans., Theology of Hope, 1967), on the beginning of the ecumenical theology-of-hope movement.


4.13 Angels and demons.

C. JOUCO BLEEKER and GEO WIDENGREN (eds.), Historia Religionum: Handbook for the History of Religions, vol. 1, Religions of the Past (1969), and vol. 2, Religions of the Present (1971), contains helpful sections on the role of angels and demons in chapters on the various religions, as well as a very usable bibliography. J.B. NOSS, Man's Religions, 4th ed. (1969), contains useful sections on angels and demons. GUSTAV DAVIDSON, A Dictionary of Angels, Including the Fallen Angels (1967); and ROSSELL H. ROBBINS, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology (1959), are Western-oriented. R.C. ZAEHNER, The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961), has excellent sections on the role of angels and demons in Zoroastrianism and their relationship to Hindu spiritual beings. ROBERT M. GRANT, Gnosticism and Early Christianity, 2nd ed. (1966), contains useful sections relating angelic and demonic figures of Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism to Gnostic speculation. See also JEFFREY B. RUSSELL, Satan: the Early Christian Tradition (1981).


4.14 Salvation.

For recent and comprehensive studies of the subject, S.G.F. BRANDON, Man and His Destiny in the Great Religions (1962), provides extensive documentation and bibliographies; important aspects of salvation are specially dealt with in his History, Time and Deity (1965) and The Judgment of the Dead (1967). S.G.F. BRANDON (ed.), The Saviour God (1963), comprises 15 essays by specialists in the major religions. A valuable and well-documented study of the subject in Hebrew, Greco-Roman religions, and early Christianity may be found in T. KLAUSER (ed.), Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, vol. 5, col. 54-219 (1964). ADOLF VON HARNACK'S monumental Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, 3rd ed., 3 vol. (1893; Eng. trans., History of Dogma, 7 vol., 1900, reprinted 1961), traces the development of Christian soteriology. L.W. GRENSTED, A Short History of the Doctrine of the Atonement (1920, reprinted 1962), is a reliable concise guide. Aspects of salvation in the religions concerned are treated in the following books: R.C. ZAEHNER, Hinduism, 2nd ed. (1966) and The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961); E.J. THOMAS, The History of Buddhist Thought, 2nd ed. (1951); and A.J. WENSINCK, The Muslim Creed (1932).


4.15 Providence.

No general introduction to the subject written from the point of view of the science of religion exists, but useful articles are found in some specialized encyclopaedias, such as Hastings' Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (1919). Further information has to be gathered from monographs about specific problems related to Providence, e.g., JOHN BOWKER, Problems of Suffering in the Religions of the World (1970).


4.16 Revelation.

R.C. ZAEHNER, At Sundry Times (1958), a sympathetic approach by an accomplished scholar who finds anticipations of Christian revelation not only in Judaism but also in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Zoroastrianism; J.H. WALGRAVE, Un salut aux dimensions du monde, trans. from the Dutch (1970), an apologetically oriented work that attempts to bring out the distinctive qualities of the Christian view of revelation in comparison with Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam.


4.17 Primitive religion:

MIRCEA ELIADE, Traité d'histoire des religions (1948; Eng. trans., Patterns in Comparative Religion, 1958), a discussion of hierophanies, myths, and symbols as pertinent to the theme of revelation; G. VAN DER LEEUW, Phänomenologie der Religion (1933; Eng. trans., Religion in Essence and Manifestation, 2 vol., 1963), a phenomenological approach influenced by Rudolf Otto and others.


4.18 Christianity:

A.R. DULLES, Revelation Theology: A History (1969), a survey of Catholic and Protestant views; J. BAILLIE, The Idea of Revelation in Recent Thought (1956), a sketch of trends in 20th-century Protestant theology; CARL F. HENRY, God, Revelation and Authority, 6 vol. (1976-83), an evangelical's argument for the infallibility of biblical revelation.


4.19 Islam:

A.J. ARBERRY, Revelation and Reason in Islam (1957), a concise and learned treatment of the medieval controversies; K. CRAGG, The Call of the Minaret, pt. 2, pp. 33-171 (1956), a very objective presentation of Muslim faith and piety, including some discussion of the doctrine of revelation.


4.20 Hinduism:

K.S. MURTY, Revelation and Reason in Advaita Vedanta (1959), an exposition and evaluation of Shankara's position in the light of modern Western philosophy; R.C. ZAEHNER, Hindu and Muslim Mysticism (1960), on the love relationship to God in Bhakti and Sufism.


4.21 Buddhism:

W.L. KING, Buddhism and Christianity: Some Bridges of Understanding (1962), an objective comparison between Christianity and Theravada Buddhism, with a good discussion of the revelatory role of the Buddha.


4.22 Judaism:

A.J. HESCHEL, God in Search of Man, pt. 2, pp. 167-278 (1956), a presentation of modern Judaism by a prominent rabbinic scholar.


4.23 Covenant.

W. BEYERLIN, Herkunft und Geschichte der altesten Sinai traditionen (1961; Eng. trans., Origins and History of the Oldest Sinaitic Traditions, 1966); G.E. MENDENHALL, "Covenant," Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. 1, pp. 714-723 (1962); R.C. DARNELL, Idea of Divine Covenant in the Qur'an (1970); D.J. McCARTHY, Treaty and Covenant (1963); "Egyptian and Hittite Treaties" in J.B. PRITCHARD (ed.), Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 2nd ed., pp. 199-206 (1955); D.R. HILLERS, Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea (1969); JONATHAN BISHOP, The Covenant (1982), a look at covenants in the Old and New Testaments and an attempt to apply the concept to today's world.


4.24 Prophecy.

General: G. HOLSCHER, Die Propheten (1914), a classic; A.J. HESCHEL, The Prophets (1962), a theological comparison between Israelite and non-Israelite prophets; J. LINDBLOM, Prophecy in Ancient Israel (1962), a good introduction to the phenomenological, psychological, and theological problems of prophecy; R.B.Y. SCOTT, The Relevance of the Prophets, 2nd ed. (1968).


4.25 Prophecy in the ancient Middle East and Israel:

A. GUILLAUME, Prophecy and Divination Among the Hebrews and Other Semites (1938), a standard work; D.R. HILLERS, Treaty-Curses and Old Testament Prophets (1964); A.L. OPPENHEIM, Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization (1964); R.E. CLEMENTS, Prophecy and Covenant (1965), a valuable study of the available prophetical texts from Mari thus far; N.K. GOTTWALD, All the Kingdoms of the Earth (1964), on prophets and politics; E. HAMMERSHAIMB, Some Aspects of Old Testament Prophecy from Isaiah to Malachi (1966), dealing with the Canaanite, cultic, and historical background; A.R. JOHNSON, The Cultic Prophet in Ancient Israel, 2nd ed. (1962); J. PEDERSEN, Israel, 4 vol. (1926-40), a classic on religious life and institutions; H. RINGGREN, Israelite Religion (1966).


4.26 Prophecy in Christianity:

L. HARTMAN, Prophecy Interpreted (1966); H.A. GUY, New Testament Prophecy (1947); G. FRIEDRICH, "Prophets and Prophecies in the New Testament," Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol. 6, pp. 828-861 (1968); S. UMEN, Pharisaism and Jesus (1963).


4.27 Prophecy in Islam:

T. ANDRAE, Mohammed: The Man and His Faith (Eng. trans. 1956); S. FUCHS, Rebellious Prophets (1965); A. GUILLAUME, Islam, new ed. (1963); P.K. HITTI, Islam: A Way of Life (1970); W. MONTGOMERY WATT, "Muhammad," The Cambridge History of Islam, vol. 1, pp. 30-56 (1970).


4.28 Prophetic movements and figures in Eastern and primitive religions:

I. HORI, Folk Religion in Japan: Continuity and Change, ed. by J.M. KITAGAWA and A.L. MILLER (1968); E.R. and K. HUGHES, Religion in China (1950); B.G.M. SUNDKLER, Bantu Prophets in South Africa, 2nd ed. (1961); M. WEBER, The Religion of China, trans. by H.H. GERTH (1968).


4.29 Miracle.

GUSTAV MENSCHING, Das Wunder im Glauben und Aberglauben der Völker (1957), the best and most complete treatment of the subject; ROBERT M. GRANT, Miracle and Natural Law in Graeco-Roman and Early Christian Thought (1952), a description of Hellenistic attitudes and beliefs. BENEDICTA WARD, Miracles and the Medieval Mind: Theory, Record, and Events, 1000-1215 (1982), a study of the attitudes toward reports of miracles by the church and by other institutions.


4.30 Saint.

H. RINGGREN and A.V. STROM, Die Religionen der Völker (1959; Eng. trans. from the 3rd Swedish ed., Religions of Mankind Today and Yesterday, 1967), gives information on the significance of saints. The cult of saints is dealt with in connection with the phenomenology of religion by G. MENSCHING, Die Religion (1959). See also W.J. BURGHARDT, Saints and Sanctity (1965). The characteristics and the actions of holy men in non-Christian religions are treated in R.A. NICHOLSON, The Mystics of Islam (1914, reprinted 1963); W.T. DE BARY et al. (comps.), Sources of Chinese Tradition (1960); and G. VON GRUNEBAUM, Medieval Islam, 2nd ed. (1953). In the realm of Christianity, P. MOLINARI, I Santi e il loro culto (1962; Eng. trans., Saints: Their Place in the Church, 1965), gives information concerning the veneration of saints in folk piety. The veneration of saints in the Eastern Church is canvassed by D. ATTWATER, Saints of the East (1963).


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