HEINRICH EMIL BRUNNER, Dogmatik, vol. 1 (1946; Eng. trans., Dogmatics,
vol. 1, The Christian Doctrine of God, 1949), advocates the
primacy of Scripture over tradition; OWEN CHADWICK, From Bossuet to
Newman: The Idea of Doctrinal Development (1957), an excellent survey of
the gradual shift from "the classical consciousness" of identity
in doctrine (Bossuet) to a "historical consciousness" of growth
and continuity (Newman); ADOLF VON HARNACK, Lehrbuch der
Dogmengeschichte, 3rd ed., 3 vol. (1893; Eng. trans., History of
Dogma, 7 vol., 1900, reprinted 1961), a massive exposition of the thesis
that Christian dogma represents the process of Hellenization of the original
Gospel, hence a deviation; JOHN HENRY NEWMAN, An Essay on the Development
of Christian Doctrine, new ed. (1878), a classical statement of the
emergence of the historical consciousness within the Catholic tradition; J.
PELIKAN, Development of Christian Doctrine: Some Historical Prolegomena (1969),
an important statement of the interaction of Scripture and tradition in the
formation of Christian doctrines and dogmas; FREDERICK J. STRENG, Understanding
Religious Man (1969), an excellent summary of the common elements in
religious experience, including those relating to doctrine and dogma; R.C.
ZAEHNER, Concordant Discord: The Interdependence of Faiths (1970),
helpful insights as to the various ideas of authority in the major religions
of the world.
Cosmogonic myths: CHARLES H. LONG, Alpha: The Myths of Creation
(1963), gives examples of various types of cosmogonic myths from
different cultures. For ancient Near Eastern myths, see Ancient Near
Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, ed. by JAMES B. PRITCHARD,
3rd ed. with suppl. (1969). JOHANNES PEDERSEN, Israel, 4 vol. (Eng.
trans. 1926-40), is a cultural-religious study that shows the relationship
between creation myth, land, and kinship system. For the nature and
structure of myths and symbols, see ERNST CASSIRER, Philosophie der
symbolischen Formen, 4 vol. (1953-56; Eng. trans., The Philosophy of
Symbolic Forms, 3 vol., 1953-55); and JOAN O'BRIEN and WILFRED MAJOR, In
the Beginning: Creation Myths from Ancient Mesopotamia, Israel, and Greece
JOHN BURNET, Early Greek Philosophy, 4th ed. (1930, reprinted
1963), is a well-written interpretation of the pre-Socratic myths of
creation. ARNOLD EHRHARDT, The Beginning (1968), shows the common
structure of the cosmologies of the Gospel According to John and
For a theological history of the Christian doctrine of creation in its
variety and continuity, see JAROSLAV PELIKAN, Development of Christian
Doctrine (1969), The Christian Tradition (1971), and Historical
Theology: Continuity and Change in Christian Doctrine (1971). JOHN
MACQUARRIE, Principles of Christian Theology (1966), presents a
structural and systematic analysis of the elements of Christian theology,
showing how the doctrine of creation fits into theological systems.
DE LACY O'LEARY, Arabic Thought and Its Place in History, rev. ed.
(1939, reprinted 1963), deals with the internal and external sources of
Arabic philosophy and cosmology. SEYYED HOSSEIN NASR, An Introduction to
Islamic Cosmological Doctrines (1964), explicates a tradition in Arabic
thought that expresses creation in symbolic and cosmological images.
Several Zoroastrian myths and doctrines of creation are found in R.C.
ZAEHNER, The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961).
ARTHUR F. WRIGHT (ed.), Studies in Chinese Thought (1953), brings
together 10 essays on various aspects of Chinese thought; most valuable is
DERK BODDE, "Harmony and Conflict in Chinese Philosophy," pp.
19-80. For a history of Chinese philosophical speculation as it relates to
cosmogony and cosmology, see FUNG YU-LAN, A History of Chinese
Philosophy, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1952-53).
Speculations about creation in the various schools of Indian philosophy
can be found in SURENDRANATH DAS GUPTA, A History of Indian Philosophy, 5
vol. (1922-55). ALAIN DANIELOU, Le Polythéisme hindou (1960;
Eng. trans., Hindu Polytheism, 1964), is a description and
interpretation of the gods of Hinduism in relationship to their
philosophical meaning. T.R.V. MURTI, The Central Philosophy of Buddhism (1955),
is an explication of the Madhyamika system of Buddhist philosophy
that denies creation.
HAJIME NAKAMURA, Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples (1964), is a
comparative work showing the similarities and contrasts between Indian,
Chinese, Tibetan, and Japanese modes of thought especially as they concern
creation. C.F. VON WEIZSACKER, The Relevance of Science: Creation and
Cosmogony (1964), deals with the evolution of thought about creation
from myth to scientific theory. CHARLES HARTSHORNE and WILLIAM REESE (eds.),
Philosophers Speak of God (1953), explores the rational bases for
several conceptions of God and creation in Eastern and Western thought.
General: M. ELIADE, Le Mythe de l'éternel retour (1949;
Eng. trans., The Myth of the Eternal Return, 1954), an
internationally recognized standard work; T. ROSZAK, The Making of a
Counter Culture (1969), a discussion of the formation of secular
messianic movements in modern society; W.D. WALLIS, Messiahs: Their Role
in Civilization (1943); GAYRAUD S. WILMORE, Last Things First
(1982), a scholarly discussion of eschatology as it has existed in various
cultures and religions.
R.H. CHARLES, Eschatology: The Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel,
Judaism and Christianity (1899, reprinted 1963), a comparison of ideas;
O. CULLMANN, Christus und die Zeit, 3rd ed. (1962; Eng. trans., Christ
and Time, 1962); R.K. BULTMANN, History and Eschatology (1957),
an existentialist interpretation of eschatology; P.S. MINEAR, The
Christian Hope and the Second Coming (1954), an integral biblical view;
R.J. ZWI WERBLOWSKY, "Messianism in Jewish History," Journal of
World History, 11:30-45 (1968), with a bibliography; and N.R.C. COHN, The
Pursuit of the Millennium, 2nd ed. (1961; rev. paperback ed., 1970).
M. SCHMAUS, Von den letzten Dingen (1948), the best Roman Catholic
treatise on eschatology; N. BERDYAEV, The Beginning and the End (1957,
orig. pub. in Russian, 1947), Russian Orthodox philosophy of religion;
J.A.T. ROBINSON, In the End, God (1968), an introduction to this
subject; P. TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, Le Phénomene humain (1956;
Eng. trans., The Phenomenon of Man, 1959), a discussion combining
eschatology with the theory of evolution; J. MOLTMANN, Theologie der
Hoffnung, 8th ed. (1964; Eng. trans., Theology of Hope, 1967), on
the beginning of the ecumenical theology-of-hope movement.
C. JOUCO BLEEKER and GEO WIDENGREN (eds.), Historia Religionum:
Handbook for the History of Religions, vol. 1, Religions of the Past (1969),
and vol. 2, Religions of the Present (1971), contains helpful
sections on the role of angels and demons in chapters on the various
religions, as well as a very usable bibliography. J.B. NOSS, Man's
Religions, 4th ed. (1969), contains useful sections on angels and
demons. GUSTAV DAVIDSON, A Dictionary of Angels, Including the Fallen
Angels (1967); and ROSSELL H. ROBBINS, The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft
and Demonology (1959), are Western-oriented. R.C. ZAEHNER, The Dawn
and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961), has excellent sections on the
role of angels and demons in Zoroastrianism and their relationship to Hindu
spiritual beings. ROBERT M. GRANT, Gnosticism and Early Christianity, 2nd
ed. (1966), contains useful sections relating angelic and demonic figures of
Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism to Gnostic speculation. See also
JEFFREY B. RUSSELL, Satan: the Early Christian Tradition (1981).
For recent and comprehensive studies of the subject, S.G.F. BRANDON, Man
and His Destiny in the Great Religions (1962), provides extensive
documentation and bibliographies; important aspects of salvation are
specially dealt with in his History, Time and Deity (1965) and The
Judgment of the Dead (1967). S.G.F. BRANDON (ed.), The Saviour God (1963),
comprises 15 essays by specialists in the major religions. A valuable and
well-documented study of the subject in Hebrew, Greco-Roman religions, and
early Christianity may be found in T. KLAUSER (ed.), Reallexikon für
Antike und Christentum, vol. 5, col. 54-219 (1964). ADOLF VON HARNACK'S
monumental Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, 3rd ed., 3 vol. (1893; Eng.
trans., History of Dogma, 7 vol., 1900, reprinted 1961), traces the
development of Christian soteriology. L.W. GRENSTED, A Short History of
the Doctrine of the Atonement (1920, reprinted 1962), is a reliable
concise guide. Aspects of salvation in the religions concerned are treated
in the following books: R.C. ZAEHNER, Hinduism, 2nd ed. (1966) and The
Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961); E.J. THOMAS, The History
of Buddhist Thought, 2nd ed. (1951); and A.J. WENSINCK, The Muslim
No general introduction to the subject written from the point of view of
the science of religion exists, but useful articles are found in some
specialized encyclopaedias, such as Hastings' Encyclopaedia of Religion
and Ethics (1919). Further information has to be gathered from
monographs about specific problems related to Providence, e.g., JOHN
BOWKER, Problems of Suffering in the Religions of the World (1970).
R.C. ZAEHNER, At Sundry Times (1958), a sympathetic approach by an
accomplished scholar who finds anticipations of Christian revelation not
only in Judaism but also in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Zoroastrianism; J.H.
WALGRAVE, Un salut aux dimensions du monde, trans. from the Dutch
(1970), an apologetically oriented work that attempts to bring out the
distinctive qualities of the Christian view of revelation in comparison with
Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam.
MIRCEA ELIADE, Traité d'histoire des religions (1948; Eng.
trans., Patterns in Comparative Religion, 1958), a discussion of
hierophanies, myths, and symbols as pertinent to the theme of revelation; G.
VAN DER LEEUW, Phänomenologie der Religion (1933; Eng. trans., Religion
in Essence and Manifestation, 2 vol., 1963), a phenomenological approach
influenced by Rudolf Otto and others.
A.R. DULLES, Revelation Theology: A History (1969), a survey of
Catholic and Protestant views; J. BAILLIE, The Idea of Revelation in
Recent Thought (1956), a sketch of trends in 20th-century Protestant
theology; CARL F. HENRY, God, Revelation and Authority, 6 vol.
(1976-83), an evangelical's argument for the infallibility of biblical
A.J. ARBERRY, Revelation and Reason in Islam (1957), a concise and
learned treatment of the medieval controversies; K. CRAGG, The Call of
the Minaret, pt. 2, pp. 33-171 (1956), a very objective presentation of
Muslim faith and piety, including some discussion of the doctrine of
K.S. MURTY, Revelation and Reason in Advaita Vedanta (1959), an
exposition and evaluation of Shankara's position in the light
of modern Western philosophy; R.C. ZAEHNER, Hindu and Muslim Mysticism (1960),
on the love relationship to God in Bhakti and Sufism.
W.L. KING, Buddhism and Christianity: Some Bridges of Understanding (1962),
an objective comparison between Christianity and Theravada Buddhism,
with a good discussion of the revelatory role of the Buddha.
A.J. HESCHEL, God in Search of Man, pt. 2, pp. 167-278 (1956), a
presentation of modern Judaism by a prominent rabbinic scholar.
W. BEYERLIN, Herkunft und Geschichte der altesten Sinai traditionen
(1961; Eng. trans., Origins and History of the Oldest Sinaitic Traditions,
1966); G.E. MENDENHALL, "Covenant," Interpreter's Dictionary of
the Bible, vol. 1, pp. 714-723 (1962); R.C. DARNELL, Idea of Divine
Covenant in the Qur'an (1970); D.J. McCARTHY, Treaty and Covenant (1963);
"Egyptian and Hittite Treaties" in J.B. PRITCHARD (ed.), Ancient
Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 2nd ed., pp. 199-206
(1955); D.R. HILLERS, Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea (1969);
JONATHAN BISHOP, The Covenant (1982), a look at covenants in the Old
and New Testaments and an attempt to apply the concept to today's world.
General: G. HOLSCHER, Die Propheten (1914), a classic;
A.J. HESCHEL, The Prophets (1962), a theological comparison between
Israelite and non-Israelite prophets; J. LINDBLOM, Prophecy in Ancient
Israel (1962), a good introduction to the phenomenological,
psychological, and theological problems of prophecy; R.B.Y. SCOTT, The
Relevance of the Prophets, 2nd ed. (1968).
A. GUILLAUME, Prophecy and Divination Among the Hebrews and Other
Semites (1938), a standard work; D.R. HILLERS, Treaty-Curses and Old
Testament Prophets (1964); A.L. OPPENHEIM, Ancient Mesopotamia:
Portrait of a Dead Civilization (1964); R.E. CLEMENTS, Prophecy and
Covenant (1965), a valuable study of the available prophetical texts
from Mari thus far; N.K. GOTTWALD, All the Kingdoms of the Earth (1964),
on prophets and politics; E. HAMMERSHAIMB, Some Aspects of Old Testament
Prophecy from Isaiah to Malachi (1966), dealing with the Canaanite,
cultic, and historical background; A.R. JOHNSON, The Cultic Prophet in
Ancient Israel, 2nd ed. (1962); J. PEDERSEN, Israel, 4 vol.
(1926-40), a classic on religious life and institutions; H. RINGGREN, Israelite
L. HARTMAN, Prophecy Interpreted (1966); H.A. GUY, New
Testament Prophecy (1947); G. FRIEDRICH, "Prophets and Prophecies
in the New Testament," Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, vol.
6, pp. 828-861 (1968); S. UMEN, Pharisaism and Jesus (1963).
T. ANDRAE, Mohammed: The Man and His Faith (Eng. trans. 1956); S.
FUCHS, Rebellious Prophets (1965); A. GUILLAUME, Islam, new
ed. (1963); P.K. HITTI, Islam: A Way of Life (1970); W. MONTGOMERY
WATT, "Muhammad," The Cambridge History of Islam, vol.
1, pp. 30-56 (1970).
I. HORI, Folk Religion in Japan: Continuity and Change, ed. by
J.M. KITAGAWA and A.L. MILLER (1968); E.R. and K. HUGHES, Religion in
China (1950); B.G.M. SUNDKLER, Bantu Prophets in South Africa, 2nd
ed. (1961); M. WEBER, The Religion of China, trans. by H.H. GERTH
GUSTAV MENSCHING, Das Wunder im Glauben und Aberglauben der Völker
(1957), the best and most complete treatment of the subject; ROBERT M.
GRANT, Miracle and Natural Law in Graeco-Roman and Early Christian
Thought (1952), a description of Hellenistic attitudes and beliefs.
BENEDICTA WARD, Miracles and the Medieval Mind: Theory, Record, and
Events, 1000-1215 (1982), a study of the attitudes toward reports of
miracles by the church and by other institutions.
H. RINGGREN and A.V. STROM, Die Religionen der Völker (1959;
Eng. trans. from the 3rd Swedish ed., Religions of Mankind Today and
Yesterday, 1967), gives information on the significance of saints. The
cult of saints is dealt with in connection with the phenomenology of
religion by G. MENSCHING, Die Religion (1959). See also W.J.
BURGHARDT, Saints and Sanctity (1965). The characteristics and the
actions of holy men in non-Christian religions are treated in R.A.
NICHOLSON, The Mystics of Islam (1914, reprinted 1963); W.T. DE BARY et
al. (comps.), Sources of Chinese Tradition (1960); and G. VON
GRUNEBAUM, Medieval Islam, 2nd ed. (1953). In the realm of
Christianity, P. MOLINARI, I Santi e il loro culto (1962; Eng.
trans., Saints: Their Place in the Church, 1965), gives information
concerning the veneration of saints in folk piety. The veneration of saints
in the Eastern Church is canvassed by D. ATTWATER, Saints of the East (1963).