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종교 탐방

Galileo (Galilei)


I. Introduction

II. Early years.

III. Research with the telescope.

IV. Conflict with Rome.

V. Value of his work.

VI. Bibliography

I. Introduction


Galileo Galilei, Italian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist, made several significant contributions to modern scientific thought. As the first man to use the telescope to study the skies, he amassed evidence that proved the Earth revolves around the Sun and is not the centre of the universe, as had been believed. His position represented such a radical departure from accepted thought that he was tried by the Inquisition in Rome, ordered to recant, and forced to spend the last eight years of his life under house arrest. He informally stated the principles later embodied in Newton's first two laws of motion. Because of his pioneer work in gravitation and motion and in combining mathematical analysis with experimentation, Galileo often is referred to as the founder of modern mechanics and experimental physics. Perhaps the most far-reaching of his achievements was his reestablishment of mathematical rationalism against Aristotle's logico-verbal approach and his insistence that the "Book of Nature is . . . written in mathematical characters." From this base, he was able to found the modern experimental method. (see also Index: science, history of, heliocentric system, Newton's laws of motion)


II. Early years.

Galileo was born at Pisa on February 15, 1564, the son of Vincenzo Galilei, a musician. He received his early education at the monastery of Vallombrosa near Florence, where his family had moved in 1574. In 1581 he entered the University of Pisa to study medicine. While in the Pisa cathedral during his first year at the university, Galileo supposedly observed a lamp swinging and found that the lamp always required the same amount of time to complete an oscillation, no matter how large the range of the swing. Later in life Galileo verified this observation experimentally and suggested that the principle of the pendulum might be applied to the regulation of clocks.

Until he supposedly observed the swinging lamp in the cathedral, Galileo had received no instruction in mathematics. Then a geometry lesson he overheard by chance awakened his interest, and he began to study mathematics and science with Ostilio Ricci, a teacher in the Tuscan court. But in 1585, before he had received a degree, he was withdrawn from the university because of lack of funds. Returning to Florence, he lectured at the Florentine academy and in 1586 published an essay describing the hydrostatic balance, the invention of which made his name known throughout Italy. In 1589 a treatise on the centre of gravity in solids won for Galileo the honourable, but not lucrative, post of mathematics lecturer at the University of Pisa.

Galileo then began his research into the theory of motion, first disproving the Aristotelian contention that bodies of different weights fall at different speeds. Because of financial difficulties, Galileo, in 1592, applied for and was awarded the chair of mathematics at Padua, where he was to remain for 18 years and perform the bulk of his most outstanding work. At Padua he continued his research on motion and proved theoretically (about 1604) that falling bodies obey what came to be known as the law of uniformly accelerated motion (in such motion a body speeds up or slows down uniformly with time). Galileo also gave the law of parabolic fall (e.g., a ball thrown into the air follows a parabolic path). The legend that he dropped weights from the leaning tower of Pisa apparently has no basis in fact.


III. Research with the telescope.

Galileo became convinced early in life of the truth of the Copernican theory (i.e., that the planets revolve about the Sun) but was deterred from avowing his opinions--as shown in his letter of April 4, 1597, to Kepler--because of fear of ridicule. While in Venice in the spring of 1609, Galileo learned of the recent invention of the telescope. After returning to Padua he built a telescope of threefold magnifying power and quickly improved it to a power of 32. Because of the method Galileo devised for checking the curvature of the lenses, his telescopes were the first that could be used for astronomical observation and soon were in demand in all parts of Europe. (see also Index: Copernican system)

As the first person to apply the telescope to a study of the skies, Galileo in late 1609 and early 1610 announced a series of astronomical discoveries. He found that the surface of the Moon was irregular and not smooth, as had been supposed; he observed that the Milky Way system was composed of a collection of stars; he discovered the satellites of Jupiter and named them Sidera Medicea (Medicean Stars) in honour of his former pupil and future employer, Cosimo II, grand duke of Tuscany. He also observed Saturn, spots on the Sun, and the phases of Venus . His first decisive astronomical observations were published in 1610 in Sidereus Nuncius ("The Starry Messenger"). (see also Index: Milky Way Galaxy, Saturn)

Although the Venetian senate had granted Galileo a lifetime appointment as professor at Padua because of his findings with the telescope, he left in the summer of 1610 to become "first philosopher and mathematician" to the grand duke of Tuscany, an appointment that enabled him to devote more time to research.


IV. Conflict with Rome.

In 1611 Galileo visited Rome and demonstrated his telescope to the most eminent personages at the pontifical court. Encouraged by the flattering reception accorded to him, he ventured, in three letters on the sunspots printed at Rome in 1613 under the title Istoria e dimostrazioni intorno alle macchie solari e loro accidenti . . . , to take up a more definite position on the Copernican theory. Movement of the spots across the face of the Sun, Galileo maintained, proved Copernicus was right and Ptolemy wrong. (see also Index: Ptolemaic system)

His great expository gifts and his choice of Italian, in which he was an acknowledged master of style, made his thoughts popular beyond the confines of the universities and created a powerful movement of opinion. The Aristotelian professors, seeing their vested interests threatened, united against him. They strove to cast suspicion upon him in the eyes of ecclesiastical authorities because of contradictions between the Copernican theory and the Scriptures. They obtained the cooperation of the Dominican preachers, who fulminated from the pulpit against the new impiety of "mathematicians" and secretly denounced Galileo to the Inquisition for blasphemous utterances, which, they said, he had freely invented. Gravely alarmed, Galileo agreed with one of his pupils, B. Castelli, a Benedictine monk, that something should be done to forestall a crisis. He accordingly wrote letters meant for the Grand Duke and for the Roman authorities (letters to Castelli, to the Grand Duchess Dowager, to Monsignor Dini) in which he pointed out the danger, reminding the church of its standing practice of interpreting Scripture allegorically whenever it came into conflict with scientific truth, quoting patristic authorities and warning that it would be "a terrible detriment for the souls if people found themselves convinced by proof of something that it was made then a sin to believe." He even went to Rome in person to beg the authorities to leave the way open for a change. A number of ecclesiastical experts were on his side. Unfortunately, Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, the chief theologian of the church, was unable to appreciate the importance of the new theories and clung to the time-honoured belief that mathematical hypotheses have nothing to do with physical reality. He only saw the danger of a scandal, which might undermine Catholicity in its fight with Protestantism. He accordingly decided that the best thing would be to check the whole issue by having Copernicanism declared "false and erroneous" and the book of Copernicus suspended by the congregation of the Index. The decree came out on March 5, 1616. On the previous February 26, however, as an act of personal consideration, Cardinal Bellarmine had granted an audience to Galileo and informed him of the forthcoming decree, warning him that he must henceforth neither "hold nor defend" the doctrine, although it could still be discussed as a mere "mathematical supposition." (see also Index: Roman Catholicism)

For the next seven years Galileo led a life of studious retirement in his house in Bellosguardo near Florence. At the end of that time (1623), he replied to a pamphlet by Orazio Grassi about the nature of comets; the pamphlet clearly had been aimed at Galileo. His reply, titled Saggiatore . . . ("Assayer . . . "), was a brilliant polemic on physical reality and an exposition of the new scientific method. In it he distinguished between the primary (i.e., measurable) properties of matter and the others (e.g., odour) and wrote his famous pronouncement that the "Book of Nature is . . . written in mathematical characters." The book was dedicated to the new pope, Urban VIII, who as Maffeo Barberini had been a longtime friend and protector of Galileo. Pope Urban received the dedication enthusiastically.

In 1624 Galileo again went to Rome, hoping to obtain a revocation of the decree of 1616. This he did not get, but he obtained permission from the Pope to write about "the systems of the world," both Ptolemaic and Copernican, as long as he discussed them noncommittally and came to the conclusion dictated to him in advance by the pontiff--that is, that man cannot presume to know how the world is really made because God could have brought about the same effects in ways unimagined by him, and he must not restrict God's omnipotence. These instructions were confirmed in writing by the head censor, Monsignor Niccolò Riccardi.

Galileo returned to Florence and spent the next several years working on his great book Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, tolemaico e copernicano (Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican, 1953).

As soon as it came out, in the year 1632, with the full and complete imprimatur of the censors, it was greeted with a tumult of applause and cries of praise from every part of the European continent as a literary and philosophical masterpiece.

On the crisis that followed there remain now only inferences. It was pointed out to the Pope that despite its noncommittal title, the work was a compelling and unabashed plea for the Copernican system. The strength of the argument made the prescribed conclusion at the end look anticlimactic and pointless. The Jesuits insisted that it could have worse consequences on the established system of teaching "than Luther and Calvin put together." The Pope, in anger, ordered a prosecution. The author being covered by license, the only legal measures would be to disavow the licensers and prohibit the book. But at that point a document was "discovered" in the file, to the effect that during his audience with Bellarmine on February 26, 1616, Galileo had been specifically enjoined from "teaching or discussing Copernicanism in any way," under the penalties of the Holy Office. His license, it was concluded, had therefore been "extorted" under false pretenses. (The consensus of historians, based on evidence made available when the file was published in 1877, has been that the document had been planted and that Galileo was never so enjoined.) The church authorities, on the strength of the "new" document, were able to prosecute him for "vehement suspicion of heresy." Notwithstanding his pleas of illness and old age, Galileo was compelled to journey to Rome in February 1633 and stand trial. He was treated with special indulgence and not jailed. In a rigorous interrogation on April 12, he steadfastly denied any memory of the 1616 injunction. The commissary general of the Inquisition, obviously sympathizing with him, discreetly outlined for the authorities a way in which he might be let off with a reprimand, but on June 16 the congregation decreed that he must be sentenced. The sentence was read to him on June 21: he was guilty of having "held and taught" the Copernican doctrine and was ordered to recant. Galileo recited a formula in which he "abjured, cursed and detested" his past errors. The sentence carried imprisonment, but this portion of the penalty was immediately commuted by the Pope into house arrest and seclusion on his little estate at Arcetri near Florence, where he returned in December 1633. The sentence of house arrest remained in effect throughout the last eight years of his life.

Although confined to his estate, Galileo's prodigious mental activity continued undiminished to the last. In 1634 he completed Discorsi e dimostrazioni mathematiche intorno a due nuove scienze attenenti alla meccanica (Dialogue Concerning Two New Sciences . . . , 1914), in which he recapitulated the results of his early experiments and his mature meditations on the principles of mechanics. This, in many respects his most valuable work, was printed by Louis Elzevirs at Leiden in 1638. His last telescopic discovery--that of the Moon's diurnal and monthly librations (wobbling from side to side)--was made in 1637, only a few months before he became blind. But the fire of his genius was not even yet extinct. He continued his scientific correspondence with unbroken interest and undiminished acumen; he thought out the application of the pendulum to the regulation of clockwork, which the Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens put into practice in 1656; he was engaged in dictating to his disciples, Vincenzo Viviani and Evangelista Torricelli, his latest ideas on the theory of impact when he was seized with the slow fever that resulted in his death at Arcetri on January 8, 1642.


V. Value of his work.

The direct services of permanent value that Galileo rendered to astronomy are virtually summed up in his telescopic discoveries. His name is justly associated with a vast extension of the bounds of the visible universe, and his telescopic observations are a standing monument of his ability. Within two years after their discovery, he had constructed approximately accurate tables of the revolutions of Jupiter's satellites and proposed their frequent eclipses as a means of determining longitudes on land and at sea. The idea, though ingenious, has been found of little use at sea. His observations on sunspots are noteworthy for their accuracy and for the deductions he drew from them with regard to the rotation of the Sun and the revolution of the Earth.

A puzzling circumstance is Galileo's neglect of Kepler's laws, which were discovered during his lifetime. But then he believed strongly that orbits should be circular (not elliptical, as Kepler discovered) in order to keep the fabric of the cosmos in its perfect order. This preconception prevented him from giving a full formulation of the inertial law, which he himself discovered, although it usually is attributed to the French mathematician René Descartes. Galileo believed that the inertial path of a body around the Earth must be circular. Lacking the idea of Newtonian gravitation, he hoped this would allow him to explain the path of the planets as circular inertial orbits around the Sun.

The idea of a universal force of gravitation seems to have hovered on the borders of this great man's mind, but he refused to entertain it because, like Descartes, he considered it an "occult" quality. More valid instances of the anticipation of modern discoveries may be found in his prevision that a small annual parallax would eventually be found for some of the fixed stars and that extra-Saturnian planets would at some future time be ascertained to exist and in his conviction that light travels with a measurable although extremely great velocity. Although Galileo discovered, in 1610, a means of adapting his telescope to the examination of minute objects, he did not become acquainted with the compound microscope until 1624, when he saw one in Rome and, with characteristic ingenuity, immediately introduced several improvements into its construction.

A most substantial part of his work consisted undoubtedly of his contributions toward the establishment of mechanics as a science. Some valuable but isolated facts and theorems had previously been discovered and proved, but it was Galileo who first clearly grasped the idea of force as a mechanical agent. Although he did not formulate the interdependence of motion and force into laws, his writings on dynamics are everywhere suggestive of those laws, and his solutions of dynamical problems involve their recognition. In this branch of science he paved the way for the English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton later in the century. The extraordinary advances made by him were due to his application of mathematical analysis to physical problems. (see also Index: classical mechanics)

Galileo was the first man who perceived that mathematics and physics, previously kept in separate compartments, were going to join forces. He was thus able to unify celestial and terrestrial phenomena into one theory, destroying the traditional division between the world above and the world below the Moon. The method that was peculiarly his consisted in the combination of experiment with calculation--in the transformation of the concrete into the abstract and the assiduous comparison of results. He created the modern idea of experiment, which he called cimento ("ordeal"). This method was applied to check theoretical deductions in the investigation of the laws of falling bodies, of equilibrium and motion on an inclined plane, and of the motion of a projectile. The latter, together with his definition of momentum and other parts of his work, implied a knowledge of the laws of motion as later stated by Newton. In his Discorso intorno alle cose che stanno in su l'acqua ("Discourse on Things That Float"), published in 1612, he used the principle of virtual velocities to demonstrate the more elementary theorems of hydrostatics, deducing the equilibrium of fluid in a siphon, and worked out the conditions for the flotation of solid bodies in a liquid. He also constructed, in 1607, an elementary form of air thermometer. (G. de S.) (see also Index: experimentation)


VI. Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The first complete edition of Galileo's works was that of EUGENIO ALBÈRI (ed.), Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, 15 vol. in 16 (1842-56). It is now superseded by Le Opere di Galileo Galilei, ed. by ANTONIO FAVARO, 20 vol. in 21 (1890-1909, reissued 1968), which contains every obtainable document and scrap of correspondence; the documents of the trial are in vol. 19. A critical edition of the trial documents is SERGIO M. PAGANO and ANTONIO G. LUCIANI (eds.), I documenti del processo di Galileo Galilei (1984).

The first English translation of Galileo's writings was contained in THOMAS SALUSBURY, Mathematical Collections and Translations, vol. 1, part 1 (1661, reprinted 1968). Other English translations include Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, trans. by HENRY CREW and ALFONSO DE SALVIO (1914, reissued 1968); Dialogue on the Great World Systems, trans. by THOMAS SALUSBURY, rev. and ed. by GIORGIO DE SANTILLANA (1953); Discoveries and Opinions of Galileo, trans. by STILLMAN DRAKE (1957, reissued 1990), which includes The Starry Messenger, The Assayer, and excerpts from Letters on Sunspots; On Motion, and On Mechanics, trans. by I.E. DRABKIN and STILLMAN DRAKE (1960); The Controversy on the Comets of 1618: Galileo Galilei, Horatio Grassi, Mario Guiducci, Johann Kepler, trans. by STILLMAN DRAKE and C.D. O'MALLEY (1960); Discourse on Bodies in Water, trans. by THOMAS SALUSBURY, ed. by STILLMAN DRAKE (1960); Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemaic & Copernican, trans. by STILLMAN DRAKE, 2nd ed. (1967); Mechanics in Sixteenth-Century Italy: Selections from Tartaglia, Benedetti, Guido Ubaldo & Galileo, trans. by STILLMAN DRAKE and I.E. DRABKIN (1969); Two New Sciences, Including Centers of Gravity & Force of Percussion, trans. by STILLMAN DRAKE (1974); Galileo Against the Philosophers in His Dialogue of Cecco di Ronchitti (1605) and Considerations of Alimberto Mauri (1606), trans. by STILLMAN DRAKE (1976); and Galileo's Logical Treatises: A Translation, With Notes and Commentary, of His Appropriated Latin Questions on Aristotle's Posterior Analytics, trans. by WILLIAM A. WALLACE (1992). STILLMAN DRAKE, Cause, Experiment, and Science: A Galilean Dialogue, Incorporating a New English Translation of Galileo's Bodies That Stay Atop Water, or Move in It (1981), and Telescopes, Tides, and Tactics: A Galilean Dialogue About the Starry Messenger and Systems of the World (1983), present views of Galileo's work in physics and in astronomy, respectively, through the use of imaginary discussions between three of Galileo's contemporaries; the latter volume also contains a complete translation of The Starry Messenger.

Among the most important collections of monographs and scholarly sources are ANTONIO FAVARO, Galileo Galilei e lo studio di Padova, 2 vol. (1883, reissued 1966); and STILLMAN DRAKE, Galileo Studies: Personality, Tradition, and Revolution (1970), and Galileo at Work: His Scientific Biography (1978, reissued 1981), which is updated by Galileo: Pioneer Scientist (1990). Biographical studies that include discussion of the Vatican's late 20th-century efforts to rehabilitate Galileo are MICHAEL SHARRATT, Galileo: Decisive Innovator (1994); and JAMES RESTON, JR., Galileo (1994).

The original documents from the archives of the Inquisition were first published in their entirety by HENRI DE L'ÉPINOIS, Les Pièces du procès de Galilée précédees d'un avant-propos (1877). The earliest authoritative discussions are KARL VON GEBLER, Galileo Galilei and the Roman Curia (1879, reprinted 1977; originally published in German, 2 vol., 1876-77); and EMIL WOHLWILL, Galilei und sein Kampf für die copernicanische Lehre, 2 vol. (1909-26, reprinted 1969). More recent are GIORGIO DE SANTILLANA, The Crime of Galileo (1955, reprinted 1981); and STILLMAN DRAKE, Galileo (1980). On the Roman Catholic side are F.R. WEGG-PROSSER, Galileo and His Judges (1889); and FILIPPO SOCCORSI, Il Processo di Galileo (1947). Surveys of the events that led to his clash with the Inquisition are found in COLIN A. RONAN, Galileo (1974); and MAURICE A. FINOCCHIARO (ed. and trans.), The Galileo Affair: A Documentary History (1989). RICHARD J. BLACKWELL, Galileo, Bellarmine, and the Bible (1991), examines the conflict from a theological angle and includes many relevant documents. RICHARD S. WESTFALL, Essays on the Trial of Galileo (1989), assesses the affair from different perspectives. JEROME J. LANGFORD, Galileo, Science, and the Church, 3rd ed. (1992), includes a discussion of 20th-century Roman Catholic thought.

Monographs tracing the development of Galilean scientific theories are MAURICE CLAVELIN, The Natural Philosophy of Galileo (1974; originally published in French, 1968); and MAURICE A. FINOCCHIARO, Galileo and the Art of Reasoning: Rhetorical Foundations of Logic and Scientific Method (1980), with a concordance to major translations of Galileo's works and a bibliography. WILLIAM A. WALLACE, Galileo's Logic of Discovery and Proof: The Background, Content, and Use of His Appropriated Treatises on Aristotle's Posterior Analytics (1992), offers an analysis of Galileo's logical methodology. MICHAEL SEGRE, In the Wake of Galileo (1991), considers the scientific environment of Galileo's time and his place in it, as well as the influence he had on his followers. A scholarly examination of the influence of patronage in Galileo's work is found in MARIO BIAGIOLI, Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism (1993).

DUDLEY SHAPERE, Galileo: A Philosophical Study (1974), contains criticism of earlier writers on Galileo. Medieval influences are examined in WILLIAM R. SHEA, Galileo's Intellectual Revolution: Middle Period, 1610-1632, 2nd ed. (1977); LYNN WHITE, JR., Medieval Religion and Technology (1978, reissued 1986); and WILLIAM A. WALLACE, Prelude to Galileo: Essays on Medieval and Sixteenth-Century Sources of Galileo's Thought (1981), and Galileo and His Sources: The Heritage of the Collegio Romano in Galileo's Science (1984), which discusses scholarly Jesuit influence in particular.

ERNAN McMULLIN (ed.), Galileo, Man of Science (1968, reissued 1988), consists chiefly of papers presented at the Galileo Quatercentenary Congress in 1964. Also of interest is CARLO L. GOLINO (ed.), Galileo Reappraised (1966), a collection of papers delivered at a commemorative conference in 1965.

A. CARLI and ANTONIO FAVARO (compilers), Bibliografia Galileiana (1568-1895) (1896, reprinted 1972), lists more than 2,000 publications. It is continued in GIUSEPPE BOFFITO (compiler), Bibliografia Galileiana, 1896-1940 (1943), which lists another 2,000 titles; and ELIO GENTILI (compiler), Bibliografia Galileiana: Fra i due centenari, 1942-1964 (1966).


(1564. 2. 15 피사~1642. 1. 8 피렌체 근처 아르체트리). 이탈리아의 수학자·천문학자·물리학자. 근대 과학의 발전에 많은 공헌을 했다. 특히 중력과 운동에 관한 연구에 실험과 수리해석을 함께 사용하여 일반적으로 근대역학과 실험물리학의 창시자로 알려져 있다. '자연은 수학적 언어로 씌어진다'라는 주장으로 수학적 합리주의를 주창하여 아리스토텔레스의 논리에 대항했다. 

어려서는 피렌체 근방의 수도원에서 교육을 받았고, 1581년 피사대학에 입학하여 의학을 공부했는데, 그해에 피사 대성당에서 등잔이 흔들리는 것을 보고 유명한 진자의 등시성을 발견했다. 그러나 이때는 수학을 체계적으로 배우지 못했고, 그뒤 토스카나 궁정의 수학자 오스틸리오 리치에게서 수학과 과학을 배웠다. 1585년 경제적인 이유로 피렌체로 돌아와서 피렌체 아카데미에서 강의를 했다. 1586년에는 정수(靜水)저울에 관한 논문으로 널리 알려졌고, 1589년에 고체의 무게중심에 관한 논문으로 피사대학의 수학강사로 임명되었다. 1592년 파도바대학으로 자리를 옮겨 운동에 관한 연구를 계속했고 1604년 낙하물체는 등가속도운동 법칙에 따른다는 사실을 이론적으로 증명했다. 또한 포물선낙하운동 법칙도 발견했는데, 옛날부터 전해 내려왔던 피사 사탑의 실험은 실제로는 근거가 없는 것으로 밝혀졌다.

그는 일찍부터 지구가 태양 주위를 돈다는 코페르니쿠스의 태양중심체계를 믿고 있었지만 공개적으로 언급하기를 꺼렸다. 1609년 봄 베네치아에서 망원경 발명의 소식을 접하고 파도바로 돌아와서 3배율 망원경을 만들었으며, 그뒤 곧 32배율로 개량했다. 이 망원경은 새로 고안한 렌즈의 곡률점검법을 사용하여 천체관측에 처음으로 이용될 수 있었고, 곧 전유럽에서 주문이 쇄도했다.

1609년 후반에서 1610년 초반까지 이 망원경으로 그는 천문학에 있어 많은 발견을 했다. 달 표면은 평평하지 않으며, 은하수는 많은 별들로 이루어져 있고, 목성에 위성이 있다는 사실과, 또 태양의 흑점, 금성의 위상, 토성의 띠 등도 관측했다. 이런 관측은 〈천계통보 The Starry Messenger〉(1610)로 출판되었으며, 이로 인해 파도바대학의 종신교수로 임명되었으나 보다 많은 연구를 위해 토스카나 대공의 과학자문역으로 자리를 옮겼다.

1611년 로마를 방문한 그는 많은 찬사를 듣고 유럽 최고의 과학자임을 인정받았다. 이에 자신을 얻은 그는 1613년 태양의 흑점이동을 바탕으로 코페르니쿠스가 옳고 프톨레마이오스가 틀렸음을 밝히는 3통의 편지를 출판했는데 뛰어난 설명과 단어 선택으로 그의 생각이 널리 알려져 광범위한 지지를 받았다.

지동설에 대한 지지에 위협을 느낀 아리스토텔레스 추종자들은 성경에 위반된다는 이유로 그를 공격하기 시작했고 도미니쿠스 수도회 신부들과 연합하여 그를 비난했으며 급기야 비밀리에 그는 불경죄로 종교재판에 회부되었다. 이에 놀란 그는 교회가 과학적 사실의 진부에 대해서 관대한 입장을 견지해 줄 것을 탄원했고 많은 종교 지도자들도 그의 입장을 지지했지만, 교리 책임자였던 벨라르미노 추기경의 태도는 완강했다. 추기경의 주된 관심은 오로지 신교와 싸우기 위한 가톨릭 진영의 단결에 있었기 때문에 어떠한 이탈도 용납될 수 없었다. 1616년 3월 5일 코페르니쿠스 체계가 오류임이 공포되면서 코페르니쿠스의 책은 금서목록에 오르게 되었다. 그 전에 추기경은 이 사실을 통보하면서 앞으로는 코페르니쿠스 체계를 지지하거나 변론해서도 안된다고 경고했다.

1624년 그는 금지법령을 철회시키기 위해 로마를 방문했으나 그의 요청은 받아들여지지 않았고, 다만 오랜 친구이자 후원자였던 새 교황 우르바누스 8세(Urbanus Ⅷ, Maffeo Barberini)는 두 우주체계를 공정하게 다룬다는 조건으로 허가해주었다. 교황은 인간의 능력으로는 우주가 실제로 어떻게 이루어져 있는지 판단할 수 없다는 식의 결론을 원했고 어떠한 다른 논의를 해서도 안된다고 못박았다. 이에 대한 다짐은 교회 검열관에 의해 서면으로 확인되었다.

피렌체로 돌아와서 대작 〈2개의 주된 우주체계―프톨레마이오스와 코페르니쿠스―에 관한 대화 Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, tolemaico e copernicaon〉를 저술했다. 1632년 모든 검열을 거친 이 책은 문학과 철학 분야의 걸작으로 전유럽에 널리 퍼졌다.

그러나 교황은 이 책이 제목과는 달리 코페르니쿠스 체계를 명백히 옹호하고 있다는 사실을 깨달았으며, 예수회에서는 이 책이 루터와 칼뱅의 설교를 합친 것보다 더 나쁘다고까지 주장했다. 화가 난 교황은 기소를 명령했으며, 이와 동시에 그가 1616년에 서약했던 문서가 발견되었다. 오늘날 역사가들은 위조문서였다고 하지만, 그는 이것 때문에 재판을 받게 되었다. 이단행위로 기소된 그는 1633년 2월 노령과 질병에도 불구하고 로마로 소환되었으나 특별대우로 감옥에 갇히지는 않았다. 4월 12일의 심문에서 그는 1616년 문서를 부인했지만, 유죄판결을 받았다. 그리고 코페르니쿠스 체계를 부정할 것을 선고받고는 순순히 과거의 잘못을 "맹세코 포기하며, 저주하고 혐오한다"고 선언했다. 그뒤 투옥이 선고되었지만, 교황의 배려로 감형되어 죽을 때까지 피렌체의 집에 자택연금을 당했다.

그는 연금기간 동안에도 연구를 계속하여, 1634년에는 그동안 연구한 역학원리와 초기 실험결과를 〈두 새 과학에 관한 논의와 수학적 논증 Discorsi e dimostrazioni mathematiche intorno a due nuove scienze attenenti alla meccanica〉에 담아 출판했다. 그는 1637년 완전히 눈이 멀 때까지 천체관측을 계속했다. 과학자들과의 서신교환도 그치지 않았고, 1642년 사망할 때까지 제자 비비아니와 토리첼리를 지도했다.

그의 과학적 업적은 크게 천문학과 역학으로 나눌 수 있다. 천문학에서의 공헌은 망원경 관측에 의해 많은 새로운 발견을 한 데 있다. 또 별의 연주시차를 발견했고 빛의 속도가 유한하다고 믿었다. 그렇지만 케플러 법칙을 무시하고 원운동을 고수한 점이나 중력을 마술적이라는 이유로 거부한 점 등은 그의 한계였다.

역학을 과학의 한 분야로 성립시킨 것도 그의 업적이다. 특히 ' 힘'과 후에 뉴턴에 의해 공식화된 역학을 수학적으로 해석하여 힘과 운동 사이의 밀접한 관계를 암시했던 것은 빼놓을 수 없는 업적이다.

G. D. de Santillana 글 | 金東源 참조집필




· 새 과학의 대화(박영문고 123·124) : 갈릴레오 갈릴레이, 정연태 역, 박영사, 1977

· Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems : Galileo Galilei, University of California Press, 1962


· 근대 과학의 구조(과학사 총서 2) : 리차드 S. 웨스트팔, 김영식 외 역, 민음사, 1992

· 하늘의 과학사 : 나카야마 시게루, 김향 역, 가람기획, 1991

· 갈릴레오 갈릴레이(두레신서 28) : 베르톨트 브레히트, 차경아 역, 두레, 1989

· 근대 과학의 출현과 종교 : R. 호이카스, 손봉호·김영식 공역, 정음사, 1987

· 과학혁명 - 근대과학의 출현과 그 배경(대우학술총서 자연과학 18) : 김영식, 1984

· 근대과학의 기원-1300년부터 1800년에 이르기까지 : H. 버터필드, 차하순 역, 탐구당, 1980

· 과학사의 뒷 얘기 II -물리학(현대과학신서 25) : A. 섯클리프 외, 정연태 역, 전파과학사, 1973

· Galileo at Work:His Scientific Biography : Stillman Drake, University of Chicago Press, 1978

· Man and Nature in the Renaissance : Allen G. Debus, Cambridge University Press, 1978

· The Natural Philosophy of Galileo:Essay on the Origins and Formation of Classical Mechanics : Maurice Clavelin, MIT Press, 1974

· Galileo:A Philosophical Study : Daudley Shapere, University of Chicago Press, 1974

· Etudes Galileennes : A. Koyre, Herman, 1966

· The Crime of Galileo : Giorgio de Santillana, University of Chicago Press, 1955



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