also called PELAGIAN HERESY, a 5th-century Christian heresy taught by Pelagius
(q.v.) and his followers that stressed the essential
goodness of human nature and the freedom of the human will. Pelagius was
concerned about the slack moral standards among Christians, and he hoped to
improve their conduct by his teachings. Rejecting the arguments of those who
claimed that they sinned because of human weakness, he insisted that God
made human beings free to choose between good and evil and that sin is a
voluntary act committed by a person against God's law. Celestius,
a disciple of Pelagius, denied the church's doctrine of original sin and the
necessity of infant Baptism.
||Pelagian Heresy라고도 하며, 5세기
펠라기우스와 그의 추종자들이 가르친 그리스도교
이단이다. 인간 본성의 선함과 인간의 자유의지를
강조했다. 펠라기우스는 그리스도교도들 사이에 만연해
있는 도덕적 태만을 걱정했으며, 자신의 가르침을 통해
그들의 행위가 개선되기를 원했다. 인간이 약하기 때문에
죄를 지을 수밖에 없다고 하는 사람들의 주장을 거부한
이들은 하느님은 인간이 선과 악 사이에서 자유롭게
선택하도록 했다고 주장했고, 따라서 죄란 한 인간이
하느님의 법을 저버리고 자발적으로 범한 행위라고 했다.
펠라기우스의 제자인 켈레스티우스는 원죄에 대한
교회의 교리와 유아세례의 필요성을 거부했다.
bishop of Hippo, who asserted that human beings could not attain
righteousness by their own efforts and were totally dependent upon the grace
of God. Condemned by two councils of African bishops in 416, and again at
Carthage in 418, Pelagius and Celestius were finally excommunicated in 418;
Pelagius' later fate is unknown.
|| 히포의 주교인
아우구스티누스는 펠라기우스주의를 반대했는데, 그는
인간이란 그들 자신의 노력으로는 의(義)에 도달할 수
없고 온전히 하느님의 은총에 의지해야 한다고 주장했다.
416년 아프리카 주교들의 2개 공의회에서 단죄받았고, 418년
카르타고에서 다시 단죄받은 펠라기우스와
켈레스티우스는 418년 결국 파문당했으며, 그후
펠라기우스의 행적에 대해서는 알려진 것이 없다.
|The controversy, however, was not over. Julian
of Eclanum continued to assert the Pelagian view and engaged
Augustine in literary polemic until the latter's death in 430. Julian
himself was finally condemned, with the rest of the Pelagian party, at the Council
of Ephesus in 431. Another heresy, known as Semi-Pelagianism
(q.v.), flourished in southern Gaul until it was finally
condemned at the second Council of Orange in 529.
||그러나 논쟁이 완전히 끝난 것은
아니었다. 에클라눔의 율리아누스는 펠라기우스의
견해를 계속 주장했고, 430년 아우구스티누스가 죽을
때까지 그와 글로써 논쟁을 벌였다. 율리아누스 자신도
431년 에페소스 공의회에서 펠라기우스 진영의 사람들과
함께 결국 단죄받았다. 반(半)펠라기우스주의로 알려진
다른 이단은 남부 갈리아에서 융성하다가 529년 2차
오랑주 공의회에서 결국 단죄받았다.
(b. c. 354, probably Britain--d. after 418, possibly Palestine), monk
and theologian whose heterodox theological system known as Pelagianism
(q.v.) emphasized the primacy of human effort in spiritual
salvation. (see also Index: Pelagianism)
Coming to Rome c. 380, Pelagius, though not a priest, became a
highly regarded spiritual director for both clergy and laymen. The rigorous
asceticism of his adherents acted as a reproach to the spiritual sloth of
many Roman Christians, whose moral standards greatly distressed him. He
blamed Rome's moral laxity on the doctrine of divine grace that he heard a
bishop cite from the Confessions of Saint Augustine, who in his
prayer for continence beseeched God to grant whatever grace the divine will
determined. Pelagius attacked this teaching on the grounds that it
imperilled the entire moral law and soon gained a considerable following at
Rome. Henceforth his closest collaborator was a lawyer named Celestius.
After the fall of Rome to the Visigoth chieftain Alaric in 410, Pelagius
and Celestius went to Africa. There they encountered the hostile criticism
of Augustine, who published several denunciatory letters concerning their
doctrine, particularly Pelagius' insistence on man's basically good moral
nature and on man's own responsibility for voluntarily choosing Christian
asceticism for his spiritual advancement.
Pelagius left for Palestine c. 412. There, although accused of
heresy at the synod of Jerusalem in 415, he succeeded in clearing himself
and avoiding censure. In response to further attacks from Augustine and the
Latin biblical scholar Jerome, Pelagius wrote De libero arbitrio
("On Free Will") in 416, which resulted in the condemnation of his
teaching by two African councils. In 417 Pope Innocent I endorsed the
condemnations and excommunicated Pelagius and Celestius. Innocent's
successor, Zosimus, at first pronounced him innocent on the basis of
Pelagius' Libellus fidei ("Brief Statement of Faith"), but
after renewed investigation at the council of Carthage in 418, Zosimus
confirmed the council's nine canons condemning Pelagius. Nothing more is
known of Pelagius after this date.