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VIII. Bibliography


BIBLIOGRAPHY. Among the many overviews of Hinduism are THOMAS J. HOPKINS, The Hindu Religious Tradition (1971); DAVID R. KINSLEY, Hinduism: A Cultural Perspective (1982); R.C. ZAEHNER, Hinduism, (1962, reissued 1977); and LOUIS RENOU, Religions of Ancient India (1953, reissued 1972). An excellent survey of all aspects of pre-Muslim ancient India is A.L. BASHAM, The Wonder That Was India, 3rd rev. ed. (1967, reprinted 1985). More detailed and technical accounts may be found in JAN GONDA, Die Religionen Indiens, 2 vol. (1960-63); and in R.C. MAJUMDAR (ed.), The History and Culture of the Indian People, 11 vol. (1951-69). A basic resource for the study of Hinduism is the series "The History of Indian Literature," including the volumes by JAN GONDA, Vedic Literature (Samhitas and Brahmanas) (1975), and Medieval Religious Literature in Sanskrit (1977); and by TEUN GOUDRIAAN and SANJUKTA GUPTA, Hindu Tantric and Shakta Literature (1981). A detailed outline is also provided by J.N. FARQUHAR, An Outline of the Religious Literature of India (1920, reprinted 1967). For historical overviews, consult VINCENT A. SMITH, The Oxford History of India, 4th ed. (1981); ROMILA THAPAR and PERCIVAL SPEAR, A History of India, 2 vol. (1965-66); and D.D. KOSAMBI, The Culture and Civilisation of Ancient India in Historical Outline (1965, reissued 1970; U.S. title, Ancient India: A History of Its Culture and Civilization, 1966, reissued 1969).

For the original sources of the principal texts of Hinduism in English translation, convenient collections include AINSLIE T. EMBREE (ed.), The Hindu Tradition (1966, reissued 1972); WENDY DONIGER O'FLAHERTY (ed. and trans.), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism (1988); AINSLIE T. EMBREE and STEPHEN N. HAY (eds.), Sources of Indian Tradition, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1988); and R.C. ZAEHNER (ed. and trans.), Hindu Scriptures (1966). Compendiums of Hindu mythology in translation include WENDY DONIGER O'FLAHERTY (ed. and trans), Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook (1975); and CORNELIA DIMMITT and J.A.B. VAN BUITENEN (eds. and trans.), Classical Hindu Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit Puranas (1978).

Some of the individual textual classics of Hinduism have been translated and published in the series "Sacred Books of the East": F. MAX MÜLLER and HERMANN OLDENBERG (trans.), Vedic Hymns, 2 vol. (1891-97, reprinted 1979), selections from the Rigveda; MAURICE BLOOMFIELD (trans.), Hymns of the Atharva-Veda: Together with Extracts from the Ritual Books and the Commentaries (1897, reissued 1973); JULIUS EGGELING (trans.), The Shatapatha-Brahmana, According to the Text of the Mâdhyandina School, 5 vol. (1882-1900, reprinted 1978); G. BÜHLER (trans.), The Laws of Manu (1886, reprinted 1971), with extracts from seven commentaries; JULIUS JOLLY (trans.), The Institutes of Vishnu (1880, reprinted 1965), and The Minor Law-Books (1889, reprinted 1965); GEORGE THIBAUT (trans.), The Vedanta-Sutras, with the Commentary by Ramanuja, 3 vol. (1890-1904, reprinted 1977); and HERMANN OLDENBERG (trans.), The Grihya-Sutras: Rules of Vedic Domestic Ceremonies, 2 vol. (1886-92, reissued 1973). See also WENDY DONIGER O'FLAHERTY (ed. and trans.), The Rig Veda: An Anthology (1981), a collection of 108 hymns. ROBERT ERNEST HUME (trans.), The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, 2nd ed. rev. (1931, reissued 1983), remains the best translation. R.C. ZAEHNER, The Bhagavad-Gita: With a Commentary Based on the Original Sources (1969, reprinted 1973), is one of the best translations of this text. Translations of the epics include PRATAP CHANDRA ROY (trans.), The Mahabharata of Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa, 12 vol. (1883-96, reprinted 1981-82); J.A.B. VAN BUITENEN (ed. and trans.), The Mahabharata (1973- ); HARI PRASAD SHASTRI (trans.), The Ramayana, 3rd ed., 3 vol. (1976); and ROBERT P. GOLDMAN (trans.), The Ramayana of Valmiki: An Epic of Ancient India (1984- ), with 2 vol. published by 1988. Translations of several Puranas are available in J.L. SHASTRI, Ancient Indian Tradition & Mythology (1970- ), with 35 vol. published by 1987; and in the Puranas, ed. by ANAND SWARUP GUPTA (1968- ).

Although many of the vast sources for the vernacular literatures have not been translated, there are some, including: W. DOUGLAS P. HILL (trans.), The Holy Lake of the Acts of Rama (1952), a translation of the Ramcaritmanas of Tulasi Das; CH. VAUDEVILLE (trans.), Kabir, vol. 1 (1974); LINDA HESS and SHUKDEV SINGH (trans.), The Bijak of Kabir (1983, reissued 1986); KENNETH E. BRYANT, Poems to the Child-God: Structures and Strategies in the Poetry of Surdas (1978); JOHN STRATTON HAWLEY, Sur Das: Poet, Singer, Saint (1984); A.K. RAMANUJAN (trans.), Speaking of Shiva (1973), Hymns for the Drowning: Poems for Visnu (1981), and Poems of Love and War: From the Eight Anthologies and the Ten Long Poems of Classical Tamil (1985); and DAVID DEAN SHULMAN, Tamil Temple Myths: Sacrifice and Divine Marriage in the South Indian Saiva Tradition (1980), and The King and the Clown in South Indian Myth and Poetry (1985).

A good introduction to tribal and Hindu folklore is provided by VERRIER ELWIN (trans.), Tribal Myths of Orissa (1954, reprinted 1980), Myths of Middle India (1949, reprinted 1977), and Myths of the North-East Frontier of India (1958, reissued 1968). See also BRENDA E.F. BECK et al. (eds.), Folktales of India (1987); and STUART H. BLACKBURN and A.K. RAMANUJAN (eds.), Another Harmony: New Essays on the Folklore of India (1986).

For the prehistoric period and the Indus Valley civilization, see WALTER A. FAIRSERVIS, JR., The Roots of Ancient India, 2nd ed. rev. (1975); STUART PIGGOTT, Prehistoric India to 1000 B.C. (1950, reissued 1962); MORTIMER WHEELER, The Indus Civilization, 3rd ed. (1968); and JOHN MARSHALL, Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization, 3 vol. (1931, reprinted 1973). The best works on the Vedic religion include the essays found in J.C. HEESTERMAN, The Inner Conflict of Tradition: Essays in Indian Ritual (1985); see also FRITS STAAL, C.V. SOMAYAJIPAD, and M. ITTI RAVI NAMBUDIRI, Agni: The Vedic Ritual of the Fire Alta, 2 vols. (1983). The classic work on the Vedic sacrifice is SYLVAIN LÉVI, La Doctrine du sacrifice dans les Brâhmanas (1898, reissued 1966). Still useful are ARTHUR BERRIEDALE KEITH, The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads, 2 vol. (1925, reprinted 1971); and LOUIS RENOU, Vedic India, trans. from French (1957, reissued 1971). Works on the relations between Vedic religion and later Hinduism are JAN GONDA, Change and Continuity in Indian Religion (1965); MADELEINE BIARDEAU and CHARLES MALAMOUD, Sacrifice dans l'Inde ancienne (1976); and BRIAN K. SMITH, Reflections on Resemblance, Ritual, and Religion (1989).

The literature and teachings on dharma are presented in PANDURANG VAMAN KANE, History of Dharmashastra (Ancient and Mediaeval Religions and Civil Law in India), 2nd ed., 5 vol. in 8 (1968-77), an indispensible work. A summary of dharma is found in ROBERT LINGAT, The Classical Law of India (1973; originally published in French, 1967). The best study on yoga is MIRCEA ELIADE, Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, 2nd ed. (1969; originally published in French, 1954); also consult JEAN VARENNE, Yoga and the Hindu Tradition (1976; originally published in French, 1973). The doctrine of karma and rebirth as it is presented in the texts is examined in the essays collected in WENDY DONIGER O'FLAHERTY (ed.), Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions (1980). CHARLES F. KEYES and E. VALENTINE DANIEL (eds.), Karma: An Anthropological Inquiry (1983), is also useful. Of the many works on the theoretical underpinnings of the caste system, the most influential of recent years has been the magnum opus by LOUIS DUMONT, Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications, rev. ed. (1980; originally published in French, 1966). Also noteworthy is VEENA DAS, Structure and Cognition: Aspects of Hindu Caste and Ritual, 2nd ed. (1982).

For a convenient summary of the Hindu practice and ideology of image worship, consult DIANA L. ECK, Darshan: Seeing the Divine Image in India, 2nd rev. and enl. ed. (1985); and the essays in JOANNE PUNZO WAGHORNE, NORMAN CUTLER, and VASUDHA NARAYANAN (eds.), Gods of Flesh/Gods of Stone: The Embodiment of Divinity in India (1985). The best work on Hindu temples is STELLA KRAMRISCH, The Hindu Temple, 2 vol. (1946, reprinted 1976); see also GEORGE MICHELL, The Hindu Temple: An Introduction to Its Meaning and Forms (1977). The practice of pilgrimage in general, and specifically pilgrimage to the holy city of Varanasi, is treated in DIANA L. ECK, Banaras: City of Light (1982).

For an overview of the sects worshiping Vishnu or one of his forms, see JAN GONDA, Aspects of Early Visnuism (1954, reissued 1969); SUVIRA JAISWAL, The Origin and Development of Vaisnavism: Vaisnavism from 200 B.C. to A.D. 500, 2nd rev. and enl. ed. (1981); and MILTON SINGER (ed.), Krishna: Myths, Rites, and Attitudes (1966, reprinted 1981). For an excellent study on Krishna, see ALF HILTEBEITEL, The Ritual of Battle: Krishna in the Mahabharata (1976). Other important works include JOHN STRATTON HAWLEY, Krishna, the Butter Thief (1983); and DAVID R. KINSLEY, The Divine Player: A Study of Krsna lila (1979). SUSHIL KUMAR DE, Early History of the Vaisnava Faith and Movement in Bengal, from Sanskrit and Bengali Sources, 2nd ed. (1961), is a historical approach.

For the history of Shaivism, see C.V. NARAYANA AYYAR (SADANANDA), Origin and Early History of Shaivism in South India (1936, reprinted 1974); and V.S. PATHAK, History of Shaiva Cults in Northern India, from Inscriptions 700 A.D. to 1200 A.D. (1960, reissued 1980). The mythology of Shiva is discussed in WENDY DONIGER O'FLAHERTY, Asceticism and Eroticism in the Mythology of Shiva (1973, reprinted as Shiva, the Erotic Ascetic, 1981); and in STELLA KRAMRISCH, The Presence of Shiva (1981).

The best overviews of Tantrism are AGEHANANDA BHARATI, The Tantric Tradition (1965, reprinted 1977); and EDWARD C. DIMOCK, JR., The Place of the Hidden Moon: Erotic Mysticism in the Vaisnavasahajiya Cult of Bengal (1966). For the worship of the goddess in her many forms, consult the essays in JOHN STRATTON HAWLEY and DONNA MARIE WULFF (eds.), The Divine Consort: Radha and the Goddesses of India (1982, reprinted 1986). See also THOMAS B. COBURN, Devi Mahatmya: The Crystalization of the Goddess Tradition (1984); CHEEVER MACKENZIE BROWN, God as Mother: A Feminine Theology in India: An Historical and Theological Study of the Brahmavaivarta Purana (1974); DAVID KINSLEY, Hindu Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Tradition (1986); and WENDY DONIGER O'FLAHERTY, Women, Androgynes, and Other Mythical Beasts (1980, reprinted 1982). An interesting and accessible comparison of certain themes in the worship of Krishna and the goddess is DAVID KINSLEY, The Sword and the Flute: Kali and Krsna, Dark Visions of the Terrible and the Sublime in Hindu Mythology (1975, reprinted 1977).

Emphasizing the anthropology of "popular" Hinduism are the works by LAWRENCE A. BABB, The Divine Hierarchy: Popular Hinduism in Central India (1975); McKIM MARRIOTT (ed.), Village India: Studies in the Little Community (1955, reprinted 1986); MILTON SINGER (ed.), Traditional India: Structure and Change (1958, reissued 1976), and When a Great Tradition Modernizes: An Anthropological Approach to Indian Civilization (1972, reprinted 1980); and C.G. DIEHL, Instrument and Purpose (1956). A classic case history of the process known as Sanskritization is M.N. SRINIVAS, Religion and Society Among the Coorgs of South India (1952, reissued 1978). For a psychoanalytic approach to Hinduism, consult G. MORRIS CARSTAIRS, The Twice-Born: A Study of a Community of High-Caste Hindus (1957, reissued 1967); and SUDHIR KAKAR, The Inner World: A Psycho-Analytic Study of Childhood and Society in India, 2nd ed. rev. and enl. (1981, reprinted 1982), and Shamans, Mystics and Doctors: A Psychological Inquiry into India and Its Healing Traditions (1982, reissued 1984).

The standard work on the philosophical and theological aspects of various Hindu traditions is SURENDRANATH DASGUPTA, A History of Indian Philosophy, 5 vol. (1922-55, reprinted 1975). A fine series of volumes on Indian philosophy is KARL H. POTTER (comp.), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies (1977- ), with 4 vol. published by 1987. For an analysis of one of these traditions, see JOHN BRAISTED CARMAN, The Theology of Ramanuja: An Essay in Interreligious Understanding (1974).

Developments in the Hindu tradition as it confronted Western religions and modernity are covered in D.S. SARMA, Studies in the Renaissance of Hinduism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (1944). Of special interest are the texts collected and translated by RICHARD FOX YOUNG, Resistant Hinduism: Sanskrit Sources on Anti-Christian Apologetics in Early Nineteenth-Century India (1981).


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