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IV. Bibliography


1. General history:

SALO W. BARON, A Social and Religious History of the Jews, 2nd ed., 15 vol. (1952-73), a comprehensive presentation of the intertwined social and religious history with copious bibliographical information critically evaluated; LOUIS FINKELSTEIN (ed.), The Jews: Their History, Culture and Religion, 4th ed., 3 vol. (1970-71), critical essays by outstanding authorities on the major aspects of Jewish history and culture; JULIUS GUTTMANN, Die Philosophie des Judentums (1933; Eng. trans., Philosophies of Judaism, 1964), the best single volume on the history of Jewish thought from ancient times to the present, especially valuable for medieval Jewish philosophy; LEO W. SCHWARZ (ed.), Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People (1956), interpretive and highly readable essays by six historians on Jewish history, with emphasis on intellectual history, intended primarily for the layman; GERSHOM G. SCHOLEM, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, 3rd rev. ed. (1954), the classic treatment of mystical doctrines and schools in Judaism; MAX L. MARGOLIS and ALEXANDER MARX, A History of the Jewish People (1927, reprinted 1958), an excellent, readable, introductory survey. See also ROBERT M. SELTZER, Jewish People, Jewish Thought: The Jewish Experience in History (1980).

2. Biblical Judaism:

(General reference): The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, 4 vol. (1962). (Surveys of the culture and religion of ancient Israel): JOHANNES PEDERSEN, Israel: Its Life and Culture, 4 vol. in 2 (1926-40, reprinted 1959); W.F. ALBRIGHT, From the Stone Age to Christianity, 2nd ed. (1957); YEHEZKEL KAUFMANN, The Religion of Israel, from Its Beginnings to the Babylonian Exile (1960) and The Babylonian Captivity and Deutero-Isaiah (1970); ROLAND DE VAUX, Les Institutions de l'Ancien Testament, 2 vol. (1958-60; Eng. trans., Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions, 1961); GERHARD VON RAD, Theologie des Alten Testaments, 2nd ed. (1958; Eng. trans., Old Testament Theology, 2 vol., 1962-65); HELMER RINGGREN, Israelitische Religion (1963; Eng. trans., 1966). (Annual bibliographic keys): Elenchus Bibliographicus Biblicus, ed. by P. NOBER (1920- ); Book List of the British Society for Old Testament Study. (Special topics): E.A. SPEISER, "The Biblical Idea of History in Its Common Near Eastern Setting," Oriental and Biblical Studies: Collected Writings of E.A. Speiser, ed. by J.J. FINKELSTEIN and MOSHE GREENBERG, pp. 187-210 (1967); MENAHEM HARAN, "The Religion of the Patriarchs: Beliefs and Practices," Patriarchs: The World History of the Jewish People, vol. 2, pp. 219-245 (1970); MOSHE GREENBERG, "Crimes and Punishments," Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. 1, pp. 733-744 (1962); "Some Postulates of Biblical Criminal Law," The Jewish Expression, ed. by JUDAH GOLDIN, pp. 18-37 (1970); AELRED CODY, A History of Old Testament Priesthood (1969); JOHANNES LINDBLOM, Prophecy in Ancient Israel (1962); E.J. BICKERMAN, "The Historical Foundations of Postbiblical Judaism," The Jews: Their History, Culture, and Religion, ed. by LOUIS FINKELSTEIN, 4th ed., vol. 1, pp. 70-114 (1960); DAN JACOBSON, The Story of the Stories: The Chosen People and Its God (1982).

3. Hellenistic Judaism:

(Bibliographies): GERHARD DELLING (ed.), Bibliographie zur jüdisch-hellenistischen und intertestamentarischen Literatur 1900-1970, 2nd ed. (1975), extremely comprehensive bibliography on religion and literature of Diaspora Judaism, arranged according to topics, with separate bibliographies on every major Hellenistic Jewish author and on each book of the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha; RALPH MARCUS, "A Selected Bibliography (1920-1945) of the Jews in the Hellenistic-Roman Period," Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, 16:97-181 (1946-47), covers both Palestine and the Diaspora, helpful for noting works that are useful introductions and works that are indispensable to the specialist; LOUIS H. FELDMAN, Scholarship on Philo and Josephus, 1937-1962 (1963), critical bibliography, arranged topically, with comments on both Diaspora and Palestinian Judaism generally. (Papyrological and archaeological sourcebooks): VICTOR A. TCHERIKOVER, ALEXANDER FUKS, and MENAHEM STERN (eds.), Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum, 3 vol. (1957-64), contains text, translation, bibliography, and commentary on all papyri and inscriptions pertaining to Jews from 323 BCE to 641 CE--thoroughly reliable; ERWIN R. GOODENOUGH, Jewish Symbols in the Greco-Roman Period, 13 vol. (1953-68), a magnificent, exhaustive collection of the archaeological findings, with highly insightful, if controversial, commentary. (Standard scholarly treatments of Hellenistic Judaism): VICTOR A. TCHERIKOVER, Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews (1959; orig. pub. in Hebrew, 1930), extremely meticulous and generally balanced (though with an anti-theological bias), particularly in dealing with the political and social factors in both Palestinian and Diaspora Jewry; ROBERT H. PFEIFFER, History of New Testament Times, with an Introduction to the Apocrypha (1949), a sane and useful, if unoriginal, survey of the political, religious, and literary history of Palestinian and especially Diaspora Judaism, from 200 BCE to 200 CE; MOSES HADAS, Hellenistic Culture: Fusion and Diffusion (1959), highly suggestive, though often extravagant, treatment of the interaction of Hellenism and other cultures, especially Judaism. (Introductory popular treatments of Hellenistic Judaism): RALPH MARCUS, "The Hellenistic Age," in LEO W. SCHWARZ (ed.), Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People, pp. 93-139 (1956), extremely judicious and readable account by an eminent authority; for a readable guide to the literature, together with representative samples, see his "Hellenistic Jewish Literature," in LOUIS FINKELSTEIN (ed.), The Jews: Their History, Culture and Religion, 3rd. ed., vol. 2, pp. 1077-1115 (1960). (Works on Palestinian Judaism): GEORGE FOOT MOORE, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era, 3 vol. (1927-30, reprinted 1966-67), classic treatment based primarily on the Talmudic corpus, though the view of a Pharisaic "normative" Judaism has since been strongly challenged; SOLOMON ZEITLIN, The Rise and Fall of the Judaean State: A Political, Social and Religious History of the Second Commonwealth, 2 vol. (1962-67), stimulating and often highly original survey of the period from 332 BCE to 66 CE, though the scholarly dogmatism is occasionally jarring; SAUL LIEBERMAN, Greek in Jewish Palestine, 2nd ed. (1965) and Hellenism in Jewish Palestine, 2nd ed. (1962), highly significant, ingenious, and learned illustrations of the influence of Greek culture on the language and exegetical format of the Palestinian rabbis. (Works on Diaspora Judaism): HARRY A. WOLFSON, Philo: Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, rev. ed., 2 vol. (1962), a great and seminal, though controversial, work that makes Alexandrian Judaism a collateral branch of Palestinian Pharisaic Judaism; LOUIS H. FELDMAN, "The Orthodoxy of the Jews in Hellenistic Egypt," Jewish Social Studies, 22:215-237 (1960), a survey using literature, papyri, and art objects to examine the synthesis of Greek culture and Judaism in the upper and lower classes, respectively, of Hellenistic Egypt. See also JOHN J. COLLINS, Between Athens and Jerusalem: Jewish Identity in the Hellenistic Diaspora (1983); and MENAHEM MOR and URIEL RAPPAPORT, Bibliography of Works on Jewish History in the Hellenistic and Roman Periods (1982).

4. Rabbinic Judaism:

(Palestinian Judaism): SOLOMON SCHECHTER, Aspects of Rabbinic Theology (1961), a concise, authoritative, and engaging treatment of classical (i.e., rabbinic) Judaism. (Babylonian Judaism): JACOB NEUSNER, A History of the Jews in Babylonia, 5 vol. (1965-70; vol. 1, rev. 1969), the most comprehensive treatment of Babylonian Jewry during the Tannaitic and Amoraic periods. (Judeo-Arabic culture): S.D. GOITEIN, Jews and Arabs: Their Contacts Through the Ages, 3rd rev. ed. (1974), a popular work by the ranking authority on all aspects of Jewish-Arabic symbiosis, particularly valuable for the medieval period; ABRAHAM IBN DAUD, Sefer ha-Qabbalah (The Book of Tradition), ed. and trans. by GERSON D. COHEN (1967), the classic medieval Hebrew chronicle with analytic essays on Spanish Jewry's "golden age." (Jews of medieval Europe): ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, new ed. rev. by CECIL ROTH (1932), delightful and erudite studies of social life and institutions in medieval Europe; MORITZ GÜDEMANN, Geschichte des Erziehungswesens und der Cultur der Juden, 3 vol. (1880-88), a social and intellectual history of medieval Ashkenazic Jewry (France, Germany, Italy); CECIL ROTH, The Jews in the Renaissance (1959), lucid and informative, but with little critical analysis, valuable on Jewish contact with Christian men of letters; GERSHOM SCHOLEM, Shabbethai Zevi, 2 vol. (1957), a penetrating and comprehensive study (in Hebrew) of the great false Messiah as well as of his religious antecedents and legacy; STEPHEN SHAROT, Messianism, Mysticism, and Magic: A Sociological Analysis of Jewish Religious Movements (1982), an informative scholarly study.

5. Contemporary Judaism:

The most convenient summary for the study of modern Jewish history is HOWARD MORLEY SACHAR, The Course of Modern Jewish History, updated and expanded ed. (1977). Modern Jewish thought and movements are covered in a useful manual by JOSEPH BLAU, Modern Varieties of Judaism (1966). NATHAN ROTENSTREICH, Jewish Philosophy in Modern Times (1968); and the last (modern) section of JULIUS GUTTMAN, Philosophies of Judaism (1964), are more advanced. The very best book on Jewish religion in the modern age is unfortunately still untranslated: MAX WIENER, Jüdische Religion im Zeitalter der Emanzipation (1933). For Zionism, see the only attempt at a comprehensive reader in English, ARTHUR HERTZBERG (ed.), The Zionist Idea (1959). There are two excellent expositions of Judaism from a Reform-Liberal point of view: LEON ROTH, Judaism: A Portrait (1960); and LEO BAECK, The Essence of Judaism (1961). Conservative Judaism is well described in a book about its early history, MOSHE DAVIS, The Emergence of Conservative Judaism (1963); and by JACOB AGUS, Dialogue and Tradition (1969), the essays of a distinguished Conservative thinker. Reconstructionism is best understood in the words of its founder, MORDECAI M. KAPLAN, Judaism As a Civilization, 2nd ed. (1957). The standard modern single volume about Orthodox Judaism is ISIDORE EPSTEIN, Judaism (1935). Neo-Hasidism was best described by its greatest exponent, MARTIN BUBER, The Origin and Meaning of Hasidism (1960). Later studies include EUGENE B. BOROWITZ, Choices in Modern Jewish Thought: A Partisan Guide (1983); PAUL R. MENDES-FLOHR and JEHUDA REINHARZ (eds.), The Jew in the Modern World (1980); DAN ROSS, Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of Jewish Identity (1982).

6. Judaic literature:

B. GERHARDSSON, Memory and Manuscript (1961), contains a description of the methods and techniques by which the oral tradition was transmitted. H.L. STRACK, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash (1931); and M. MIELZINER, Introduction to the Talmud, 4th ed. (1968), are still the best introductions for the general reader. The latter is particularly helpful in explaining Talmudic dialectic terminology and debate. J. BOWKER, The Targums and Rabbinic Literature (1969); and E. DEUTSCH, The Talmud (1895), are both descriptions of the Talmud, the former concentrating upon Talmudic literary compilations and the latter upon Talmudic content. The introduction of J. GOLDIN, The Living Talmud (1957), contains a vivid description of Talmudic debate. C. ALBECK, Introduction to the Talmud, in Hebrew (1969); and Z.H. CHAJES, The Student's Guide Through the Talmud (Eng. trans. 1952), are more advanced introductions, the former analytical and scientific and the latter representing the traditional view. J. NEUSNER (ed.), The Formation of the Babylonian Talmud (1970), contains summaries of some research by modern scholars on the question of how the Talmud was formed. L. GINZBERG, "Introduction to the Talmud," in A Commentary on the Palestinian Talmud, vol. 1 (1941), is the only introduction to the Palestinian Talmud available in the English language. L. FINKELSTEIN, Akiba (1962), is a historical and sociological approach to the development of Halakha. See SAUL LIEBERMAN, op. cit., for the interrelationship between the ancient rabbinic world and its Gentile environment. B. COHEN, Jewish and Roman Law, 2 vol. (1966); and I. HERZOG, The Main Institutions of Jewish Law, 2 vol. (1966-67), are the best English descriptions of Jewish law. J. Z. LAUTERBACH, Rabbinic Essays (1951); and E.E. URBACH, The Sages: Their Concepts and Beliefs, in Hebrew (1969), cover the major aspects of rabbinic theology. I. HEINEMANN, Paths of the Aggadah, in Hebrew (1970); M. KADUSHIN, The Rabbinic Mind, 3rd ed. (1972); and D. BEN AMOS, Narrative Forms of the Haggadah: Structural Analysis (1969), discuss Haggadic methods, forms, concepts, and thinking. L. ZUNZ, Die Gottesdienstlichen Vorträge der Juden (1892; updated Hebrew translation, 1950), is a thorough historical survey of Haggadic literature. D. NOY, Motif-Index of the Talmudic-Midrashic literature (1954); J.J. SLOTKI, Index Volume to the Soncino Talmud (1952); M. GASTER, The Exempla of the Rabbis (1924, rev. ed. 1968); and C.G. MONTEFIORE and H. LOEWE, A Rabbinic Anthology (1938), are very helpful as reference guides; while W.O.E. OESTERLEY, H. LOEWE, and E.I.J. ROSENTHAL, Judaism and Christianity, rev. ed. (1969); and C. MERCHAVIA, The Church Versus Talmudic and Midrashic Literature, in Hebrew (1970), describe the relationship between the church and rabbinic Judaism. E.R. BEVAN and C. SINGER (eds.), The Legacy of Israel (1927), deals with the influence of Judaism on world culture. Extensive bibliographies may be found in the works of Gerhardsson, Mielziner, Bowker, and Ben Amos. JACOB NEUSNER, Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah (1981), introduces new methods of textual criticism.

7. Basic beliefs and doctrines:

KAUFMANN KOHLER, Jewish Theology: Systematically and Historically Considered (1918, reprinted 1928); YEHEZKEL KAUFMANN, The Religion of Israel from Its Beginnings to the Babylonian Exile (1960; orig. pub. in Hebrew, 1937-56), an abridgement and translation of the work of one of the most influential Jewish biblical scholars of modern times; GEORGE FOOT MOORE, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era, 3 vol. (1927-30), a masterful work by a distinguished Christian student of Judaism; SOLOMON SCHECHTER, Some Aspects of Rabbinic Theology (1909, reprinted 1936 and 1961), an insightful presentation of the basic doctrines; CLAUDE G. MONTEFIORE and HERBERT LOEWE, A Rabbinic Anthology (1960), a collection of materials from rabbinic sources, arranged under theologic headings, with ample notes and discussions; JULIUS GUTTMANN, Philosophies of Judaism: The History of Jewish Philosophy from Biblical Times to Franz Rosenzweig (1964), a philosophy of Judaism in the form of a history of philosophy in Judaism; ARTHUR HERTZBERG (ed.), Judaism (1961); JACOB NEUSNER, The Way of Torah: An Introduction to Judaism, 3rd ed. (1979), a very helpful statement using a history-of-religions approach; LEO BAECK, Dieses Volk; jüdische Existenz, 2 vol. (1955-57; Eng. trans., This People Israel: The Meaning of Jewish Existence, 1964), a masterful interpretation of Jewish affirmations set within an historical context; ABRAHAM E. MILLGRAM (ed.), Great Jewish Ideas (1964), a collection of essays by various scholars setting forth classic positions, covering a wide range of theological ideas; JACOB B. AGUS, The Jewish Quest (1983), a collection of essays on basic concepts of Jewish theology.

8. Ethics and society:

SIMON BERNFELD (comp.), The Foundations of Jewish Ethics, 2nd rev. ed. (1968), source materials covering Jewish history, with brief introductions by several notable scholars; MORITZ LAZARUS, Die Ethik des Judenthums, 2 vol. (1898-1911; Eng. trans., The Ethics of Judaism, 1900), a classic presentation from a 19th-century perspective; SAMUEL S. COHON, Judaism: A Way of Life (1948), written from the Reform point of view but deeply sympathetic to a wide range of ideas. Jewish ethics is also explored in ANNE ROIPHE, Generation Without Memory: A Jewish Journey in Christian America (1981); and illustrated with literary examples in FRANCINE KLAGSBRUN (comp.), Voices of Wisdom: Jewish Ideals and Ethics for Everyday Living (1980).

9. Basic practices and institutions:

LEWIS N. DEMBITZ, Jewish Services in Synagogue and Home (1898); HAYYIM SCHAUSS, The Jewish Festivals (1938; orig. pub. in Hebrew, 1933), and The Lifetime of a Jew Throughout the Ages of Jewish History (1950); ABRAHAM Z. IDELSOHN, Jewish Liturgy and Its Development (1932, reprinted 1967); MARK L. RAPHAEL (ed.), Jews and Judaism in the United States: A Documentary History (1983); SHALOM LILKER, Kibbutz Judaism: A New Tradition in the Making (1982).

10. Art and iconography:

FRANZ LANDSBERGER, A History of Jewish Art (1946); ABRAHAM Z. IDELSOHN, Jewish Music in Its Historical Development (1929, reprinted 1967); CECIL ROTH (ed.), Jewish Art: An Illustrated History (1961).

11. Relation with non-Judaic religions:

LEO BAECK, Judaism and Christianity (1958); SAMUEL SANDMEL, We Jews and You Christians: An Inquiry into Attitudes (1967); JACOB KATZ, From Prejudice to Destruction: Anti-Semitism (1980); FRANCIS E. PETERS, Children of Abraham: Judaism, Christianity, Islam (1982).

12. The role of Judaism in Western culture and civilization:

CECIL ROTH, The Jewish Contribution to Civilization 3rd ed. (1956); DENNIS B. KLEIN, Jewish Origins of the Psychoanalytic Movement (1981).

13. The present-day forms of Judaism:

LEON D. STITSKIN (ed.), Studies in Torah Judaism (1969); ALFRED JOSPE (ed.), Tradition and Contemporary Experience: Essays on Jewish Thought and Life (1970); ARNOLD JACOB WOLF (ed.), Rediscovering Judaism: Reflections on a New Theology (1965); The Condition of Jewish Belief: A Symposium, Compiled by the Editors of Commentary Magazine (1966); MORDECAI M. KAPLAN, Judaism as a Civilization, 2nd ed. (1957); SOLOMON POLL, The Hasidic Community of Williamsburg: A Study in the Sociology of Religion (1969); BERNARD MARTIN (ed.), Contemporary Reform Jewish Thought (1968); CHARLES LIEBMAN, "Orthodoxy in American Jewish Life," American Jewish Yearbook (1965); MORDECAI WAXMAN (ed.), Tradition and Change: The Development of Conservative Judaism (1958); JOSHUA ROTHENBERG, The Jewish Religion in the Soviet Union (1972).

14. The religious year:

ROLAND DE VAUX, op. cit., summarizes the contemporary state of biblical scholarship regarding the origin and development of the Jewish calendar, sabbath, and festivals. Other relevant works include: THEODOR H. GASTER, Festivals of the Jewish Year (1953), an anthropological, comparative, and often speculative approach to the sabbath and festivals; SHLOMO YOSEF ZEVIN, ha-Mo'adim ba-halakhah (1944), a modern classic (in Hebrew) treating talmudic and post-talmudic developments in the festival observances; and MENAHEM M. KASHER, Torah Shelemah, vol. 13 (1949), a comprehensive history of the Jewish calendar, also in Hebrew.

15. General introductions to Jewish philosophy:

JULIUS GUTTMANN, Die Philosophie des Judentums (1933; Eng. trans., Philosophies of Judaism, 1964), the best general treatment of Jewish philosophy from the ancient to the modern period, ending with Franz Rosenzweig; NATHAN ROTENSTREICH, Jewish Philosophy in Modern Times: From Mendelssohn to Rosenzweig (1968), a good philosophical discussion of the major thinkers in modern Jewish philosophy, especially perceptive on Hermann Cohen. ALEXANDER ALTMANN, Essays in Jewish Intellectual History (1981), a collection of insightful scholarly essays on many aspects of Jewish philosophy.

16. Hellenistic philosophy:

NAHUM GLATZER (ed.), The Essential Philo (1971), lengthy selections from the major works of Philo, with notes; HARRY A. WOLFSON, Philo, rev. ed., 2 vol. (1962), the most comprehensive study of Philo in any language, with special emphasis upon Philo's influence upon later philosophy.

17. Medieval philosophy:

ISAAC HUSIK, A History of Medieval Jewish Philosophy (1940, reprinted 1969), a thorough examination of each of the major medieval Jewish philosophers from Isaac Israeli through Joseph Albo, with good bibliography; Three Jewish Philosophers: Philo, Saadya Gaon, Jehuda Halevi, trans. and ed. by HANS LEWY, ALEXANDER ALTMANN, and ISAAK HEINEMANN (1965), a good introductory anthology containing representative selections from these classical figures with perceptive introductions and explanatory notes; GEORGES VAJDA, Introduction à la pensée juive du moyen âge (1947), a good general survey organized around the major philosophical traditions in medieval Jewish philosophy, with extensive bibliography.

18. Jewish Kalam:

SA'ADIA BEN JOSEPH, The Book of Beliefs and Opinions, trans. by SAMUEL ROSENBLATT (1948), Sa'adia's important philosophical work dealing with the major topics in Jewish theology such as faith and reason, creation, God, and reward and punishment; A Karaite Anthology, trans. and ed. by LEON NEMOY (1952), an excellent collection of the more accessible Karaite materials, covering a wide range of themes, writers, and periods; ISRAEL EFROS, "Medieval Jewish Philosophy" (1967), a collection of essays (in Hebrew) containing a full-length study of Sa'adia's philosophy, in addition to short essays on Judah ha-Levi and Maimonides.

19. Jewish Neo-Platonism:

ISAAC ISRAELI, Works, ed. and trans. by ALEXANDER ALTMANN and S.M. STERN (1958), contains complete translations of three of Israeli's works and excerpts from another, together with a comprehensive essay on his philosophy; SOLOMON IBN GABIROL, "Fountain of Life," trans. from the Latin into Hebrew by J. BLUWSTEIN (1950), in addition to a complete vocalized translation of the text this edition contains the Hebrew summary made by Shem Tov ibn Falaquera in the 13th century.

20. Judah ha-Levi:

The Kuzari, trans. by HARTWIG HIRSCHFELD (1964), a complete English translation of the text and notes, with an introductory essay by HENRY SLONIMSKY; LEO STRAUSS, "The Law of Reason in the Kuzari," in Persecution and the Art of Writing (1952), in addition to this perceptive and provocative essay on ha-Levi's attitude towards philosophy and rationalistic ethics, the book contains important essays on Maimonides and Spinoza; BAHYA IBN PAQUDA, The Duties of the Heart (Hebrew ed. by A. ZIFRONI, 1928; Eng. trans. by EDWIN COLLINS, 1904), one of the more widely read medieval classics of Jewish philosophy, concentrating upon ethics and personal piety; ABRAHAM BAR HIYYA, The Meditation of the Sad Soul, trans. with introduction by G. WIGODER (1971), one of the more accessible philosophical works of this important medieval astronomer and mathematician, devoted primarily to ethical and religious themes.

21. Jewish Aristotelianism:

ABRAHAM IBN DAUD, Das Buch Emunah Ramah, ed. and trans. into German by S. WEIL (1852), one of the first manifestations of the Jewish assimilation of Aristotelian philosophy, containing a critique of Gabirol's neo-Platonism.

22. Maimonides:

The Guide of the Perplexed, trans. with introductory essay by SHLOMO PINES (1963), an accurate and clear translation, with an excellent essay by Pines and a valuable prefatory essay by LEO STRAUSS; A Maimonides Reader, ed. with introduction and notes by I. TWERSKY (1972), a fine anthology containing important material from Maimonides' Mishne Torah and other legal writings, as well as from his shorter philosophical-theological essays and the Guide; HARRY A. WOLFSON, "Maimonides on Negative Attributes," in the Louis Ginzberg Jubilee Volume, pp. 411-446 (1945), the best historical and analytical study of Maimonides' doctrine of divine attributes; and "Halevi and Maimonides on Prophecy," Jewish Quarterly Review, n.s., 32:345-370, 33:49-82 (1942), an excellent historical analysis of the sources of doctrines of both philosophers on prophecy and a clear analysis of the differences between them. ISADORE TWERSKY, Studies in Jewish Law and Philosophy (1982), is a collection of previously published articles, some of them in Hebrew.

23. Averroists:

(Isaac Albalag): GEORGES VAJDA, Isaac Albalag, Averroïste juif, traducteur et annotateur d'Al-Ghazâlî (1960), a translation of and commentary on Albalag's main philosophical work, al-Ghazali's "Inconsistencies of the Philosophers," containing valuable citations from the classical Arabic philosophical texts. (Levi ben Gerson): "The Wars of the Lord" (1866), Gersonides' major philosophical work (in Hebrew) dealing with the most difficult and controversial topics in medieval philosophy and science; SEYMOUR FELDMAN, "Gersonides' Proofs for the Creation of the Universe," Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research, 35:113-137 (1967), an analytical study of Gersonides' theory of creation and of his criticism of Aristotle's theory of eternity of the universe. (Hasdai Crescas): "The Light of the Lord" (1861), Crescas' most original critique (in Hebrew) of Aristotelian philosophy and his vigorous defense of traditional Judaism; HARRY A. WOLFSON, Crescas' Critique of Aristotle (1929), the most important study of medieval Jewish and Arabic philosophy so far written, containing a translation and critical Hebrew text of part 1 of the treatise with comprehensive, detailed, and most valuable notes and introductory essay; JOSEPH ALBO, Book of Principles, trans. with critical text by ISAAC HUSIK, 4 vol. (1946), a fine translation with helpful notes of Albo's treatise in Jewish dogmatics.

24. Modern Jewish philosophy:

(Iberian-Dutch philosophers): I.S. RÉVAH, Spinoza et le dr. Juan de Prado (1959), a study of the cultural background of Spinoza's Amsterdam, especially of the heterodox elements in Sefardic Judaism, containing valuable material pertaining to the excommunication of Spinoza and the ideas of Uriel da Costa; BARUCH SPINOZA, Theologico-Political Treatise, trans. by R.H.M. ELWES (1883, reprinted 1951), Spinoza's critique of the Bible and the Jewish religion; LEO STRAUSS, Spinoza's Critique of Religion (1965), an excellent philosophical study of Spinoza's Treatise, its relation to Maimonides, Uriel da Costa, and other Sefardic heterodox thinkers; HARRY A. WOLFSON, The Philosophy of Spinoza, 2 vol. (1934, reprinted 1969), a most detailed commentary on Spinoza's Ethics, containing valuable references to Spinoza's medieval sources such as Maimonides, Gersonides, and Crescas.

25. German philosophers:

(Moses Mendelssohn): Jerusalem and Other Jewish Writings, trans. and ed. by ALFRED JOSPE (1969), a complete translation of Jerusalem and other miscellaneous writings, pertaining to questions on the Jewish religion, with a brief, informative, acute introduction by the editor; JULIUS GUTTMANN, "Mendelssohn's Jerusalem and Spinoza's Theologico-Politico Treatise" (in Hebrew) in his Religion and Knowledge (1956), a collection of Guttmann's essays that also includes important essays on ha-Levi, Maimonides, Gersonides, and Crescas, as well as on themes in modern philosophy of Judaism; NACHMAN KROCHMAL, "Collected Works" (1961, in Hebrew), containing his "Guide for the Perplexed of Our Times," ed. by S. RAWIDOWICZ and Rawidowicz' comprehensive analytical study of Krochmal's philosophy of Jewish history and its relationship to Hegelian philosophy. (Hermann Cohen): Die Religion der Vernunft aus den Quellen des Judentums (1919, reprinted 1966), Cohen's major work dealing with his philosophy of Judaism, organized according to the main themes of the Jewish religion; Reason and Hope: Selections from the Jewish Writings of Hermann Cohen, trans. and ed. by EVA JOSPE (1971), a useful collection from Cohen's miscellaneous writings on Jewish themes. (Franz Rosenzweig): The Star of Redemption, trans. by WILLIAM HALLO (1971), Rosenzweig's early but impressive statement of his "re-conversion" to Judaism, which has been influential in contemporary Jewish and non-Jewish theology; NAHUM GLATZER, Franz Rosenzweig: His Life and Thought, 2nd ed. (1961), an excellent anthology of Rosenzweig's various writings, containing many letters that reveal the more important and intimate episodes in Rosenzweig's career. (Martin Buber): See bibliography to article BUBER, MARTIN in the Micropædia. Interpretive studies include EMIL L. FACKENHEIM, To Mend the World: Foundations of Future Jewish Thought (1982); ARTHUR A. COHEN, The Tremendum: A Theological Interpretation of the Holocaust (1981); ALFRED JOSPE (ed.), Studies in Jewish Thought: An Anthology of German Jewish Scholarship (1981).

26. Jewish mysticism:

G.G. SCHOLEM, Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism, rev. ed. (1961), the standard survey of the subject, with a chapter-by-chapter bibliography, On the Kabbalah and its Symbolism (Eng. trans. 1965), several studies on some of the great themes of Jewish mysticism; A.E. WAITE, The Holy Kabbalah: A Study of Secret Tradition in Israel (1929), a theosophical view of Jewish mysticism. HUGO ODEBERG, 3 Enoch; or the Hebrew Book of Enoch (1928); ISIDOR KALISCH, A Book on Creation (1877); J. ABELSON, The Immanence of God in Rabbinical Literature (1912); G.G. SCHOLEM, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition (1960); JOSHUA TRACHTENBERG, Jewish Magic and Superstition (1939, paperback 1961). G.G. SCHOLEM, Ursprung and Anfänge der Kabbala (1962; French trans., Les Origines de la Kabbale, 1966); Le commentaire d'Ezra de Gérone sur le Cantique des Cantiques, trans. by G. VAJDA (1969); The Zohar, trans. by H. SPERLING and M. SIMON, 5 vol. (1931-34; paperback, sel. and ed. by G.G. SCHOLEM, 1963). MOSES CORDOVERO, The Palm Tree of Deborah, trans. from the Hebrew by L. JACOBS, 3rd ed. (1981); RAPHAEL J. ZWI WERBLOWSKY, Joseph Karo: Lawyer and Mystic (1962). L.I. NEWMAN, The Hasidic Anthology (Eng. trans. 1963); DOB BAER OF LUBAVITCH, Tract on Ecstasy, trans. from the Hebrew by L. JACOBS (1963). MARTIN BUBER, The Origin and Meaning of Hasidism (Eng. trans. 1960); S.H. DRESNER, The Zaddik: The Doctrine of the Zaddik According to the Writings of Rabbi Yaakov Yosef of Polnoy (1960); S. POLL, The Hasidic Community of Williamsburg (1962). J.L. BLAU, The Christian Interpretation of the Cabala in the Renaissance (1944); F. SECRET, Les Kabbalistes chrétiens de la Renaissance (1964); BEN ZION BOKSER, The Jewish Mystical Tradition (1981).

27. Jewish myth and legend:

T.H. GASTER, Myth, Legend, and Custom in the Old Testament (1969); R.H. CHARLES (ed.), The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English, 2 vol. (1913, reprinted 1964); M.R. JAMES, The Lost Apocrypha of the Old Testament, Their Titles and Fragments (1920). Myth and legend of the Hellenistic period is treated in W.N. STEARNS (ed.), Fragments from Graeco-Jewish Writers (1908); C.C. TORREY (ed. and trans.), Lives of the Prophets (1946); T.H. GASTER (trans.), The Dead Sea Scriptures in English Translation, pp. 256-267, 2nd ed., (1964). The Legends of the Talmud and Midrash are digested and annotated in LOUIS GINZBERG'S classic, Legends of the Jews, 7 vol. (1909-39), also available in a one-volume abridgment (1961). The Midrash Rabbah has been translated and edited by HARRY FREEDMAN and MAURICE SIMON, 13 vol. in 5, 3rd ed. (1983); and the Midrash on Psalms, by W.G. BRAUDE, 2 vol. (1959). Principal editions and translators are listed in H.L. STRACK, Einleitung in Talmud und Midras, 5th ed. (1921; Eng. trans., Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, 1931). Compilations and studies of medieval myth and legend include The Book of Jashar, trans. by M.M. NOAH (1840); M.R. JAMES (trans.), The Biblical Antiquities of Philo (1917); MOSES GASTER (trans.), The Chronicles of Jerahmeel (1899); I.J. KAZIS (ed. and trans.), The Book of the Gests of Alexander of Macedon (in Hebrew, 1962); CURT LEVIANT (ed. and trans.), King Artus (1969); MOSES HADAS (trans.), The Book of Delight (1932). On the diffusion of medieval Jewish tales, see J. JACOBS, Jewish Ideals, and Other Essays, pp. 135-161 (1896); LOUIS GINZBERG, "Jewish Folklore: East and West," Independence, Convergence, and Borrowing in Institutions, Thought, and Art, Harvard Tercentenary Conference of Arts and Sciences, pp. 89-108 (1937). Judeo-German (Yiddish) works on the subject include MOSES GASTER, Ma`aseh Book, 2 vol. (1934); N.C. GORE (ed. and trans.), Tzeenah u-Reenah: A Jewish Commentary on the Book of Exodus (1965). Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) works include IGNACIO GONZALEZ LLUBERA (ed.), Coplas de Yocef (1935); C. CREWS, "Judaeo-Spanish Folktales in Macedonia," Folk-Lore, 43:193-225 (1932). For a treatment of Hasidic legend, see MARTIN BUBER (ed.), Tales of the Hasidim, 2 vol. (1947-48). Myths and legends of the Holy Land are treated in DOV NOY (ed.), Folktales of Israel (1963); ZEV VILNAY, Legends of Palestine (1932; orig. pub. in Hebrew, 1929), and his The Sacred Land, 3 vol. (1973-78).

유대전승백과 상·: 나단 아우스벨, 조호열 역, 크리스찬다이제스트, 1992

유대고대사 전4: 성서자료연구원, 달산, 1992

토라의 길 - 유대교입문 : J. 노이스너, 서휘석 외 역, 민족사, 1992

이스라엘과 유다역사 : 후커 헤이스, 정중호 역, 대한기독교서회, 1990

이스라엘의 종교사 : H. 링그렌, 김성애 역, 성바오로출판사, 1990

이스라엘 역사 : 지그프리트 헤르만, 방석종 역, 나단출판사, 1989

비그리스도교에 관한 선언 - 2차 바티칸 공의회 :, 김남수 역, 한국천주교중앙협의회, 1988

이스라엘 역사 : 순복음교육연구소 편, 서울서적, 1988

나와 너(자유에세이 75) : M. 부버, 김진옥 역, 자유문학사, 1988

사람을 찾는 하느님(아브라함 요수아 헤셀 선집 5) : 아브라함 요수아 헤셀, 이현주 역, 종로서적, 1987

유태인 의정서 : 先島鈞次, 정성호 역, 동아서원, 1987

유태인의 정체와 역사 : 막스 M. 다이먼트, 김영수 역, 맥밀란, 1984

유대사(기독교교양대선집 20) : M. 다이먼트, 성서문학연구위원회 역, 맥밀란, 1983

유대 4000년사 : I. 엘스타인, 장병길 역, 일맥사, 1983

성서학개론 Ⅱ - 유다이즘(신학총서 16) : P. 그럴로, 제석봉 역, 분도출판사, 1981

구약성서신학 2 : G. 폰 라트, 허혁 역, 분도출판사, 1977

구약성서신학 1 - 이스라엘의 역사적 전승의 신학 : G. 폰 라트, 허혁 역, 분도출판사, 1976

이스라엘의 신앙과 신학 : 김정준, 성문학사, 1967


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