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Religion

종교 탐방

RELIGIOUS RITES

5 Bibliography

 
 

 

5.1 Sacred or holy:

The socio-anthropological analyses written near the beginning of the 20th century that are still useful for their interpretations of the sacred in preliterate societies include HENRI HUBERT and MARCEL MAUSS, Essai sur la nature et le fonction du sacrifice (1899; Eng. trans., Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function, 1964); and ÉMILE DURKHEIM, Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse, le système totémique en Australia (1912; Eng. trans., The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, 1965). More recently, in the same vein, are E.O. JAMES, Sacrifice and Sacrament (1962), a comparative analysis of sacred ritual from many different religious traditions; and ROGER CAILLOIS, L'Homme et le sacré (1939; Eng. trans., Man and the Sacred, 1960), a general reflective interpretation of various social expressions of the sacred. The following combine philosophical and theological concerns: RUDOLF OTTO, Das Heilige (1917; Eng. trans., The Idea of the Holy, 1923), an appeal to an a priori preconceptual knowledge of the holy; MAX F. SCHELER, Vom Ewigen im Menschen, 2nd ed. (1923; Eng. trans., On the Eternal in Man, 1960), an intuitive philosopher's argument for the eternal reality of the sacred prior to man's awareness or social expression of it; NATHAN SODERBLOM, "Holiness," Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 6:731-41 (1928, reprinted 1955), which stressed the quality of holiness in all religion four years prior to Otto's more famous statement, and his Living God: Basal Forms of Personal Religion (1933), a comparative study of religion organized according to various ways through which man encounters God; and JOACHIM WACH, The Comparative Study of Religions, ed. by J.M. KITAGAWA (1958), a systematic analysis of the modes (thought, action, fellowship) used to express the religious experience. Two Dutch phenomenologists of religion who have made notable contributions to the interpretation of forms that express man's relation to the sacred are GERARDUS VAN DER LEEUW, whose Phänomenologie der Religion (1933; Eng. trans., Religion in Essence and Manifestation, 1963) organizes a wide spectrum of data into three foci: the object of religion, the subject of religion, and their reciprocal relation; and W. BREDE KRISTENSEN, who wrote The Meaning of Religion (1960), a series of lectures given during the 1930s on the sacredness of man's cosmological, anthropological, and cultic awareness as expressed in the preliterate cultures and those of the ancient Mediterranean area. An extensive analysis of the forms and modes in which the sacred is recognized is found in the writings of MIRCEA ELIADE, for whom the apprehension of the sacred is a unique kind of experience in which the creative power(s) of life appear(s) in particular symbols, myths, and rites. Four of his works that deal with the nature and meaning of the sacred in different types of expression are: Le Mythe de l'éternel retour (1949; Eng. trans., The Myth of the Eternal Return, 1954, reissued 1989); Myth and Reality (1963); Traité d'histoire des religions (Eng. trans., Patterns in Comparative Religion, 1958); and The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion (1959).

 

5.2 Worship:

MIRCEA ELIADE, Traité d'histoire des religions (1949; Eng. trans., Patterns in Comparative Religion, 1958), is a standard work with much information on worship. JAMES G. FRAZER, The Worship of Nature (1926), is a classic work but is now out of date. WALTER HARRELSON, From Fertility Cult to Worship (1969); and F.H. HILLIARD, How Men Worship (1965), are popular, brief treatments of worship in the major religions. JOHN S. MBITI, Concepts of God in Africa (1970), has valuable source materials but is difficult to use because of the variety of materials placed together. GEOFFREY PARRINDER, Worship in the World's Religions (1961), is a popular work, accurate and helpful, but brief. H.H. ROWLEY, Worship in Ancient Israel (1967), is a standard and comprehensive work. EVELYN UNDERHILL, Worship (1936), is a standard work, still valuable, but now out of date. GEOFFREY WAINWRIGHT, Doxology: The Praise of God in Worship, Doctrine and Life (1980), argues that all Christian themes come to a focus in worship.

 

5.3 Ritual:

WILLIAM LESSA and EVON Z. VOGT, Reader in Comparative Religion, 3rd ed. (1971), is a good general anthology on classical and modern positions on religion, ritual, and myth (mainly concerned with nonliterate cultures), with an excellent bibliography. Gods and Rituals, ed. by JOHN MIDDLETON (1967), contains a good collection of essays on ritual practices in nonliterate cultures, also with a fine bibliography. Among the classic texts dealing with the origin of ritual and religion, there are three authors who have enduring influence: W. ROBERTSON SMITH, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (1889); ÉMILE DURKHEIM, Les Formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse (1912; Eng. trans., The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, 1965); and SIGMUND FREUD, Totem und Tabu (1913; Eng. trans., Totem and Taboo, 1918). Among the classic positions on a functional approach to ritual are those of BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI, Coral Gardens and Their Magic, 2 vol. (1935); and A.R. RADCLIFFE-BROWN, The Andaman Islanders (1922). More recent examples of the functional approach are the anthropological texts of E.E. EVANS-PRITCHARD, Nuer Religion (1956); and EDMUND LEACH, Political Systems of Highland Burma (1954). MELFORD E. SPIRO, Burmese Supernaturalism (1967), is one of the best critical texts using data from Burmese Buddhism as support for a revised approach. VICTOR W. TURNER, The Forest of Symbols (1967), represents a novel analysis of dominant symbols in belief and ritual. Among valuable approaches by theologians and historians of religion are RUDOLF OTTO, Das Heilige (1917; Eng. trans., The Idea of the Holy, 1923); and JOACHIM WACH, The Comparative Study of Religions (1958). JANE E. HARRISON, Themis, 2nd ed. rev. (1927); and S.H. HOOKE (ed.), Myth, Ritual and Kingship (1958), are good examples of the myth-ritual school. An excellent critique of this school may be found in JOSEPH E. FONTENROSE, The Ritual Theory of Myth (1966). HENRI HUBERT and MARCEL MAUSS, Essai sur la nature et le fonction du sacrifice (1899; Eng. trans., Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function, 1964), remains a standard analysis of sacrifice as ritual. ARNOLD VAN GENNEP, Les Rites de passage (Eng. trans., The Rites of Passage, 1960), although written in 1909, continues to be an important work on ritual as a marker of passage. MIRCEA ELIADE, Birth and Rebirth (1958), is an excellent historical study of ritual as initiation, with a good bibliography. See also BRUCE LINCOLN, Emerging from the Chrysalis: Studies in Rituals of Women's Initiation (1981).

 

5.4 Prayer:

The classical work is still that of F. HEILER, Das Gebet, 5th ed. (1923), which includes a bibliography and defends the theory of religious syncretism. R. BOCCASSINO (ed.), La preghiera, 3 vol. (1967), is a historical and psychological study of prayer and includes a useful bibliography. G. VAN DER LEEUW, Phänomenologie der Religion (1933; Eng. trans., Religion in Essence and Manifestation, 1963), is an excellent overview and general introduction of the psychology of prayer. Also of a psychological bent are WILLIAM JAMES, The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902); and H.U. VON BALTHASAR, Das betrachtende Gebet (1955; Eng. trans., Prayer, 1961). For prayer in various religions, in addition to La preghiera, one should refer to M.P. NILSSON, Geschichte der griechischen Religion, 2 vol. (1941-50; Eng. trans., A History of Greek Religion, 2nd ed., 1963); A. FALKENSTEIN and W. VON SODEN, Summerische und akkadische Hymnen und Gebete (1953); G.C. LOUNSBERY, La Méditation bouddhique (1935; Eng. trans., Buddhist Meditation in the Southern School, 1950); E. CONZE, Buddhist Meditation (1956); and R.C. ZAEHNER, The Teachings of the Magi (1956) and The Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961). For a bibliography on biblical prayer, see "Prière," Dictionnaire de la Bible, suppl. 8, pp. 604-606 (1968). I. ELBOGEN, Der jüdische Gottesdienst in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung, 4th ed. (1962), is a classic on Jewish prayer. This can be supplemented by A.Z. IDELSOHN, Jewish Liturgy and Its Development (1967). On the origins of Christian prayer, see A. HAMMAN, La Prière, 2 vol. (1959-63). KENNETH LEECH, True Prayer (1980), is an Anglo-Catholic introduction to Christian spirituality.

 

5.5 Creed and confession:

A comprehensive treatment of creeds in all religions is "Creeds and Articles," Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 4:231-248 (1912, reprinted 1955). For anthropological, sociological, and phenomenological considerations, see the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 13:398-414 (1968); G. VAN DER LEEUW, Phänomenologie der Religion (1933; Eng. trans., Religion in Essence and Manifestation, 1963); and J. WACH, Sociology of Religion (1944). Works devoted to creedal and confessional formulations are rare for most religions, but see S. SCHECHTER, "The Dogmas of Judaism," Studies in Judaism, pp. 147-181 (1896); and A.J. WENSINCK, The Muslim Creed: Its Genesis and Historical Development (1932). For Christianity, the fullest collection of texts remains P. SCHAFF, The Creeds of Christendom, 3 vol., 6th ed. (1919); for Roman Catholicism, H.J.D. DENZINGER and A. SCHONMETZER, Enchiridion Symbolorum (1963); and W.M. ABBOTT (ed.), The Documents of Vatican II (1966); for Protestantism, T.G. TAPPERT (ed. and trans.), The Book of Concord (1959); and A.C. COCHRANE (ed.), Reformed Confessions of the 16th Century (1966). On the Ecumenical movement, see L. VISCHER (ed.), A Documentary History of the Faith and Order Movement 1927-1963 (1963). Brief but representative collections are B.A. GERRISH, The Faith of Christendom: A Source Book of Creeds and Confessions (1963); and J.H. LEITH (ed.), Creeds of the Churches (1963). Secondary works on early creeds include O. CULLMANN, Die ersten christlichen Glaubensbekenntnisse (1943; Eng. trans., The Earliest Christian Confessions, 1949); J.N.D. KELLY, Early Christian Doctrines, 2nd ed. (1960); A.E. BURN, The Athanasian Creed, 3rd impression (1930); D.L. HOLLAND, "The Earliest Text of the Old Roman Symbol," Church History, 34:262-281 (1965), and "The Creeds of Nicaea and Constantinople Reexamined," Church History, 38:248-261 (1969). On later confessions, a full treatment with good bibliographies is E. MOLLAND, Christendom (1959). This is usually supplemented by W.A. CURTIS, A History of Creeds and Confessions of Faith in Christendom and Beyond (1911); and C.A. BRIGGS, Theological Symbolics (1914).

 

5.6 Sacrament:

The standard pioneer work on the wider pre-Christian occurrence and interpretations is W.R. SMITH, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites, 3rd ed. (1927), stressing sacramental communion with the deity. A. GARDNER, History of Sacrament in Relation to Thought and Progress (1921), applied the sacramental principle to various aspects of life and belief; and R.R. MARETT, Sacraments of Simple Folk (1933), wrote on sacraments in primitive culture. In his Dawn and Twilight of Zoroastrianism (1961), R.C. ZAEHNER discussed the anticipation of the Christian eucharistic sacramental rite in the Yasna ceremony in the Avestan liturgy. The basic sacramental beliefs and cults throughout the ages are examined anthropologically in E.O. JAMES, Sacrifice and Sacrament (1962).

A good general study of the Christian doctrine of sacraments is P.T. FORSYTH, Lectures on the Church and the Sacraments (1917). O.C. QUICK, The Christian Sacraments (1927, reprinted continually to 1952), is one of the most comprehensive surveys. The positions of various religious bodies are presented in the following: A.J. TAIT, Nature and Functions of the Sacraments (1917), the evangelical viewpoint; B. LEEMING, The Principles of Sacramental Theology, new ed. (1960), the Roman Catholic viewpoint; D.M. BAILLIE, The Theology of the Sacraments and Other Papers (1957), the Protestant viewpoint; and A. SCHMEMANN, Sacraments and Orthodoxy (1965), the Orthodox viewpoint. J.H. SRAWLEY, Liturgical Movement: Its Origin and Growth (1954), examines the development of sacramental worship with special reference to lay participation. See also JOSEPH MARTOS, Doors to the Sacred: A Historical Introduction to Sacraments in the Catholic Church (1981).

 

5.7 Sacrifice:

Classic theories of the origin and nature of sacrifice are found in the following: EDWARD B. TYLOR, Primitive Culture, 2 vol. (1871, reprinted 1958), a presentation of the gift theory of sacrifice; W. ROBERTSON SMITH, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites, 3rd ed. (1927), the clearest formulation of the author's theory of communion through a sacrificial meal; JAMES G. FRAZER, The Golden Bough, 3rd ed., 12 vol. (1907-15; abridged ed., The New Golden Bough, 1964), a famous and influential treatise on ancient religion that presents sacrifice as a means for rejuvenating a god; and HENRI HUBERT and MARCEL MAUSS, "Essai sur la nature et la fonction du sacrifice," L'Année sociologique (1899; Eng. trans., Sacrifice: Its Nature and Function, 1964), a sociological explanation of the sacrificial victim as a buffer between man and the god. More recent formulations include GERARDUS VAN DER LEEUW, Phänomenologie der Religion (1933; Eng. trans., Religion in Essence and Manifestation, 1963), an expansion of the notion of the sacrificial gift by a phenomenologist of religion; ADOLF E. JENSEN, Mythos und Kult bei Naturvölkern, rev. ed. (1960; Eng. trans., Myth and Cult Among Primitive Peoples, 1963), which correlates types of cultures and their sacrifice; RAYMOND FIRTH, "Offering and Sacrifice: Problems of Organization," in W.A. LESSA and E.Z. VOGT (eds.), Reader in Comparative Religion, 3rd ed., pp. 185-194 (1971), an economic interpretation of sacrifice; and E.O. JAMES, Sacrifice and Sacrament (1962), a good survey. FRANCES M. YOUNG, Sacrifice and the Death of Christ (1978), is an overview of the theology of sacrifice in the early Christian church.

Brief articles on several religions are found in "Sacrifice," Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 11:1-39 (1928, reprinted 1955). On Vedic religion, A.B. KEITH, The Religion and Philosophy of the Veda and Upanishads, 2 vol. (1925), is still a standard work; and LOUIS RENOU, Religions of Ancient India (1953), offers a brief survey. On Chinese sacrificial rites, see C.K. YANG, Religion in Chinese Society (1961); on ancient Egypt, J.H. BREASTED, The Elder Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt (1912); and on ancient Greek and Roman religions, R.K. YERKES, Sacrifice in Greek and Roman Religions and Early Judaism (1952), a clearly written, well-documented work; and M.P. NILSSON, Geschichte der griechischen Religion, 2 vol. (1941-50; Eng. trans., A History of Greek Religion, 2nd ed., 1963), a good handbook on Greek religion. On sacrificial rites in Judaism there is extensive literature, including "Sacrifice," Encyclopedia Judaica, 14:599-615 (1971), a good survey with a bibliography; ROLAND DE VAUX, Les Sacrifices de l'Ancien Testament (1964; Eng. trans., Studies in Old Testament Sacrifice, 1964); and YERKES (above). On ancient Scandinavian rites, see E.O.G. TURVILLE-PETRIE, Myth and Religion of the North (1964). WALTER KRICKEBERG et al., Die Religionen des Alten Amerika (1961; Eng. trans., Pre-Columbian American Religions, 1968), discusses the rites of the ancient civilizations of the American continents. On the religions of the peoples of Africa, JOHN S. MBITI, Concepts of God in Africa (1970), is an introduction with extensive bibliography. Important specific studies include MELVILLE HERSKOVITS, Dahomey, 2 vol. (1938); E.E. EVANS-PRITCHARD, Nuer Religion (1956); E.B. IDOWU, Olódùmarè: God in Yoruba Belief (1962); and GEOFFREY PARRINDER, West African Religion, 2nd ed. rev. (1961).

 

5.8 Rites of passage:

ARNOLD VAN GENNEP, Les Rites de passage (1909; Eng. trans., The Rites of Passage, 1960), is a pioneering study and standard work on passage rites. D.M. SCHNEIDER and K. GOUGH (eds.), Matrilineal Kinship (1961), is also, in comparison, a discussion of patrilineal kinship. BRUNO BETTELHEIM, Symbolic Wounds (1954), is a Freudian-inspired work interpreting ritual acts of circumcision and other genital operations. E.D. CHAPPLE and C.S. COON, Principles of Anthropology (1942), has useful information on social interaction, social equilibrium and disruption, and the role of rites of passage in restoring equilibrium. J.G. FRAZER, The Golden Bough, 3rd ed., 12 vol. (1907-15), is a classic work that discusses rites of passage and many other features of religion. A.M. HOCART, Social Origins (1954), is an interesting interpretive work although somewhat dated. FRANK W. YOUNG, Initiation Ceremonies (1965), concerns rites of coming-of-age, interpreting their significance in relation to the social roles of males and females and the organization of social groups.

 

5.9 Death rites and customs:

E. BENDANN, Death Customs: An Analytical Study of Burial Rites (1930, reprinted 1974), is a useful account of relevant ethnological material. P.C. ROSENBLATT, Grief and Mourning in Cross-Cultural Perspective (1976); and R. HUNTINGTON, Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Rituals (1979), are two more-recent anthropological studies. Four works by S.G.F. BRANDON are helpful: Man and His Destiny in the Great Religions (1962), with extensive bibliographies and documentation; The Judgment of the Dead (1967), a comprehensive study of the subject; Man and God in Art and Ritual (1972), a profusely illustrated study that deals with mortuary rituals, conceptions of burial, and funerary iconography; and "The Personification of Death in Some Ancient Religions," Bull. John Rylands Library, 43:317-385 (1961). J. MARINGER, Vorgeschichtliche Religion (1956; Eng. trans., The Gods of Prehistoric Man, 1960), discusses Paleolithic and Neolithic burial practices. E.A.W. BUDGE, The Mummy, 2nd ed. (1894, reprinted 1974), is a handbook on Egyptian funerary archaeology. J. ZANDEE, Death As an Enemy, According to Ancient Egyptian Conceptions (1960, reissued 1977), also includes Coptic evidence. M. LAMM, The Jewish Way in Death and Mourning, rev. ed. (1972); and J. JEREMIAS, Heiligengräber in Jesu Umwelt (Mt. 23, 29; Lk. 11, 47) (1958), an account of Jewish mortuary beliefs, are valuable studies. Sources focusing on Greek and Roman civilizations include E. ROHDE, Psyche: Seelenkult und Unsterblichkeitsglaube der Griechen, 8th ed. (1921; Eng. trans., Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality Among the Greeks, 1925, reprinted 1972); D.C. KURTZ, Greek Burial Customs (1971); F.V.A. CUMONT, After Life in Roman Paganism (1922); J.M.C. TOYNBEE, Death and Burial in the Roman World (1971); and A.K. FORTESCUE, The Ceremonies of the Roman Rite Described, 6th ed. rev. by J.B. O'CONNELL (1937). The following are also recommended: R. EKLUND, Life Between Death and Resurrection According to Islam (1941); J.D.C. PAVRY, The Zoroastrian Doctrine of a Future Life: From Death to the Individual Judgment, 2nd ed. (1929, reissued 1975); J.J. MODI, The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees (1922, reprinted 1979; 2nd ed., 1937); J.A. DUBOIS, Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies, 3rd ed. (1906, reissued 1968), invaluable for its descriptions; M. GRANET, La Civilisation Chinoise (1929; Eng. trans., Chinese Civilization, 1930, reprinted 1974); La Religion des Chinois, 2nd ed. (1951); P. ARIÈS, Western Attitudes Toward Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present (1974), as reflected in ceremonies, customs, literature, and art; W.K.L. CLARKE (ed.), Liturgy and Worship: A Companion to the Prayer Books of the Anglican Communion (1932); T.S.R. BOASE, Death in the Middle Ages: Mortality, Judgment, Remembrance (1972); and E. PANOFSKY, Tomb Sculpture (1964), an illustrated survey of funerary iconography from ancient Egypt to the Renaissance.

 

5.10 Purification rites and customs:

Few works deal directly with purification rites. MARY DOUGLAS, Purity and Danger (1966), is a major work dealing with the problems of purity and impurity. HUTTON WEBSTER, Taboo: A Sociological Study (1942); and FRANZ STEINER, Taboo (1956), deal with pollution taboos as part of the general field of ritual prohibitions. In the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 10:455-505 (1919, reprinted 1955), the article "Purification" has many examples. Religious texts are among the best available sources: the Old Testament; the Egyptian Book of the Dead; and FRIEDRICH MAX MÜLLER (ed.), The Sacred Books of the East, 51 vol. (1879-1904), available in many later editions. The latter includes texts of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, Zoroastrianism, and Taoism. For a good summary of Zoroastrian purification rites, see J.J. MODI, The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees (1922, reprinted 1979; 2nd ed., 1937). For ancient Greece, see LOUIS MOULINIER, Le Pur et l'impur dans la pensée des Grecs, d'Homère à Aristote (1952); and JANE HARRISON, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion, 3rd ed. (1922). For excellent synopses of African thought systems, see DARYLL FORDE (ed.), African Worlds (1963); and, for a North American tribe, see GLADYS REICHARD, Navaho Religion, 2nd ed. (1963). MARGARET MEAD, Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935; reprinted, 1968), brings together material on three Pacific Islands societies.

 

5.11 Dietary laws and food customs:

General works include DONALD E. CARR, The Deadly Feast of Life (1971), a popular account of food habits and nutritional behaviour; MARY DOUGLAS, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (1966), a definitive source; and CRAIG McANDREW and ROBERT B. EDGERTON, Drunken Comportment: A Social Explanation (1969), an exploration of the ways people are expected to behave under the influence of alcohol in different cultures.

The following discuss food customs and dietary laws in tribal societies: RAYMOND FIRTH, We, the Tikopia: A Sociological Study of Kinship in Primitive Polynesia (1936); MEYER FORTES, "Pietas in Ancestor Worship," Jl. R. Anthrop. Inst., 91:166-191 (1961), reprinted in Man in Adaptation, vol. 3, The Institutional Framework, ed. by YEHUDI A. COHEN, pp. 207-226 (1971); and MARGARET MEAD, The Mountain Arapesh, vol. 2 (1970).

The basic sources for Judaism and Christianity are, of course, the Old Testament (especially Leviticus 11, Deuteronomy 14, and the prophets) and the New Testament (especially Acts, Luke, Mark, and Romans). See also JOHANNES PEDERSEN, Israel: Its Life and Culture, 4 vol. (1926-40); and MARK ZBOROWSKI and ELIZABETH HERZOG, Life Is with People (1952, reprinted 1962), on the shtetl.

The following Islamic sources may be consulted: the Qu`ran; AMEER ALI, Mohammedan Law, 5th ed., 2 vol. (1929); and CHARLES C. TORREY, The Jewish Foundation of Islam (1933).

Sources on Indian systems include LOUIS DUMONT, Homo hierarchicus, essai sur le système des castes (1967; Eng. trans., Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications, 1970); EDWARD B. HARPER (ed.), Religion in South Asia (1964), especially Harper's "Ritual Pollution As an Integrator of Caste and Religion," pp. 151-196; EDMUND R. LEACH (ed.), Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon, and North-west Pakistan (1960); DAVID G. MANDELBAUM, Society in India, 2 vol. (1970); McKIM MARRIOTT, "Caste Ranking and Food Transactions: A Matrix Analysis," Structure and Change in Indian Society, ed. by MILTON B. SINGER and BERNARD S. COHN, pp. 133-171 (1968); KENNETH K.S. CH'EN, Buddhism: The Light of Asia (1968); and CHARLES NORTON ELIOT, Hinduism and Buddhism: An Historical Sketch, 3 vol. (1921).

For the dietary laws and customs of Japan and China, see ROBERT N. BELLAH, Tokugawa Religion (1957); GEORGE DE VOS and HIROSHI WAGATSUMA (eds.), Japan's Invisible Race: Caste in Culture and Personality (1966); KENNETH K.S. CH'EN, Buddhism in China (1964); and ARTHUR F. WRIGHT, Buddhism in Chinese History (1959).

 

5.12 Ceremonial and ritualistic objects:

JAMES HASTINGS (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 13 vol. (1908-26, reprinted 1955), although outdated, is a very complete general source. See also the Histoire générale des religions, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1960); Symbolisme cosmique et monuments religieux, 2 vol. (1953), texts and illustrations from an exhibit at the Musée Guimet, Paris; and Le Symbolisme cosmique des monuments religieux (1957), the proceedings of an international conference of the Istituto per il Medio ed Estremo-Oriente, Rome. For the ancient period, see CHARLES V. DAREMBERG and EDMOND SAGLIO (eds.), Dictionnaire des antiquités grecques et romaines . . . , 5 vol. (1877-1919); PIERRE LAVEDAN, Dictionnaire illustré de la mythologie et des antiquités grecques et romaines (1931); and MIRCEA ELIADE, Le Mythe de l'éternel retour (1949; Eng. trans., The Myth of the Eternal Return, 1954, reissued 1989).

JEANNINE AUBOYER, Introduction à l'étude de l'art de l'Inde (1965), is a basic work on the Holy Place; for the principal components, see JAMES FERGUSSON, Tree and Serpent Worship, 2nd ed. (1873), which uses Indian facts as a base but makes many comparisons with data from antiquity. This work is complemented by ODETTE VIENNOT, Le Culte de l'arbre dans l'Inde ancienne (1954). JEANNINE AUBOYER, Le Trône et son symbolisme dans l'Inde ancienne (1949), makes many references to the role and the morphology of the throne (royal and divine) in ancient and modern civilizations. D.R. SHASTRI, Origin and Development of the Rituals of Ancestor Worship in India (1963), is helpful. JEAN PRZYLUSKI, "Le Symbolisme du pilier de Sarnath," in Mélanges d'Orientalisme, vol. 2 (1932), deals with the gnomon and the cosmic pivot. See also LEOPOLD M. CADIERE, Croyances et pratiques religieuses des Annamites dans les environs de Hue, 2 vol. (1918-19).

For architectural symbolism, GEORGE COEDES, Pour mieux comprendre Angkor, rev. 2nd ed. (1947; Eng. trans., Angkor: An Introduction, 1963), contains pertinent information in the chapters on temples and tombs and on architectural symbolism. ROLF A. STEIN, "Architecture et pensée religieuse en Extrême-Orient," Arts Asiatiques, 4:163-186 (1957), deals with tents used in Central Asia, especially Siberia, and Rupestral temples.

Icons and ritual symbols are discussed in J.N. BANERJEA, The Development of Hindu Iconography, 2nd ed. (1956), particularly ch. 2, "The Antiquity of Image-Worship in India," ch. 5, "Deities and Their Emblems on Early Indian Seals," and ch. 8, "Canons of Iconometry"; GEORGE COEDES (op. cit.), ch. 3; and PIERRE FRANCASTEL (ed.), Emblèmes, totems, blasons (1964), an exhibition catalog produced by the Musée Guimet, Paris.

Cultic and ritual objects are discussed in HENRIETTE DEMOULIN-BERNARD, Masques . . . exposés dans l'annexe du Musée Guimet en décembre 1959 (1965); for Judaism, see JAMES HASTINGS, A Dictionary of the Bible, rev. ed. (1963); for Christianity, Historia Religionum, vol. 1, Religions of the Past (1969); and OSCAR CULLMANN, Urchristentum und Gottesdienst, 2nd ed. (1950; Eng. trans., Early Christian Worship, 1953); for Hinduism, The Cultural Heritage of India, vol. 1, Vedic Rituals, rev. ed. (1958); and PAUL E. DUMONT, L'Ashvamedha: descriptions du sacrifice solennel du cheval dans le culte védique (1927); for Buddhism, Hôbôgirin: dictionnaire encyclopédique du Bouddhisme . . . , 4 vol. to date (1937-67); and GEORGE P. MALALASEKERA (ed.), Encyclopaedia of Buddhism (1961- ), appearing in fascicles; for the Indian world, JAN GONDA, Die Religionen Indiens, 3 vol. (1960-64); for Indonesia, WALDEMAR STOEHR and PIET ZOETMULDER, Die Religionen Indonesiens (1965); for the Islamic world, the Encyclopaedia of Islam, 5 vol. (1908-38; new ed., 1960- ); for Tibet, ROBERT B. EKVALL, Religious Observances in Tibet (1964); HELMUT HOFFMANN, Symbolik der tibetischen Religionen und des Schamanismus (1967); ROLF A. STEIN, La Civilisation tibétaine (1962); and TURRELL WYLIE, "Apropos of Tibetan Religious Observances," Journal of the American Oriental Society, 86:39-45 (1966); and for Japan, WILLIAM G. ASHTON, Shinto (1905).

 

5.13 Religious dress and vestments:

HILAIRE and MEYER HILER, A Bibliography of Costume (1939, reprinted 1967), furnishes the widest bibliographical account. For Christian dress, see HERBERT NORRIS, Church Vestments: Their Origin and Development (1949); and CYRIL E. POCKNEE, Liturgical Vesture: Its Origins and Development (1960), a succinct, well-illustrated account. All previous research was superseded by JOSEPH BRAUN, Die liturgische Gewandung im Occident und Orient . . . (1907), which marked a turning point in liturgiological studies. JOHN B. O'CONNELL, The Celebration of Mass, new ed. (1956), a handbook for priests, is a study of the rubrics. This can be supplemented by ADRIAN FORTESCUE, Ceremonies of the Roman Rite Described, 12th rev. ed. (1962), which indicates the appropriate use of garments and is a standard work on Roman Catholic ritual. Concerning Orthodox vesture, N.F. ROBINSON, Monasticism in the Orthodox Churches (1916, reprinted 1971); and A.N. SVIRIN, Drevnerusskoe shit'e (1963), focussing on embroidery for vestments, are descriptive rather than historical or analytical in methodology. Protestant vesture has not attracted the attention of liturgists, but PERCY DEARMER, The Parson's Handbook, 13th rev. ed. (1965); and CHARLES WALKER, The Ritual Reason Why, new ed. (1931), treat the subject from a High Anglican standpoint. On religious dress in Judaism, The Universal Jewish Encyclopaedia, 10 vol. (1939-43); and WILLIAM OESTERLEY and G.H. BOX, The Religion and Worship of the Synagogue (1907), are useful. On Islamic dress, there is MOHAMMAD BAQIR OLMAJLISI, Helyet ol-motaqqin (1952). On East Asian religions, JEAN HERBERT, Shintô (1967), is a standard study of the subject and incorporates drawings of priestly attire. S. ONO, Shinto: The Kami Way (1960), also illustrates priestly attire. On Buddhist religious dress and vestments, The Book of the Discipline, vol. 4, trans. by I.B. HORNER (1951), gives the early Buddhist traditions about "the robe." HOLMES WELCH, The Practice of Chinese Buddhism, vol. 1, 1900-1950 (1967), contains much incidental material about monastic vestments, with photographs.

 

5.14 Feasts and festivals:

E.O. JAMES, Seasonal Feasts and Festivals (1961), is a classic work on feasts and festivals of seasonal renewal and on Western folk festivals and customs from prehistoric times to the early 20th century. MIRCEA ELIADE, The Sacred and the Profane (1959), is a classic treatment of the concept of sacred time. W. BREDE KRISTENSEN, The Meaning of Religion (1960), is a phenomenological treatment of feasts and festivals. C. JOUCO BLEEKER and GEO WIDENGREN (eds.), Historia Religionum: Handbook for the History of Religions, 2 vol. (1969-71), incorporates feasts and festivals into the general framework of particular religions. H.W. PARKE, Festivals of the Athenians (1977), describes these ancient celebrations. WALTER KRICKEBERG et al., Die Religionen des Alten Amerika (1961; Eng. trans., Pre-Columbian American Religions, 1968), includes treatment of various feasts, festivals, and associated rites. JOHN S. MBITI, African Religions and Philosophy, pp. 110-165 (1969), covers feasts and festivals associated with African passage rites. DERK BODDE, Festivals in Classical China (1975), has important information on the Han dynasty. JEAN HERBERT, Aux Sources du Japon: le Shintô (1964; Eng. trans., Shinto, 1967), covers the feasts and festivals of Shinto in detail (pp. 147-224). JOHN B. NOSS, Man's Religions, 6th ed. (1980), provides the best single-volume coverage of the feasts and festivals of the various religions of the world. P. RAFAEL AVILA, Worship and Politics (1981), is a historical overview of religious feasts.

 

   


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