1 This book was completed in January 1884, Tolstoy continued
to live and work till November 1910. -AM.
Once accept the thesis that Jesus, by saying ‘resist not
him ‘that is evil’, intended to forbid any use of physical force to prevent
anyone from doing whatever evil he likes, and that he was divinely and
absolutely right in laying down that principle, and there is no logical escape
from the ultimate conclusion that any Government using force, all compulsory
law, all police, and all protection of life or property is immoral.
In the Life of Tolstoy in this series, an argument is adduced -and one
that has nowhere been refuted-to show that Christ’s injunction admits of a
different understanding from that which Tolstoy attributes to it. But be that as
it may, Christ’s injunction has till now been so little regarded, and reliance
on it has been so generally the signal for scornful repudiation, that what
Tolstoy has to say in its support should not be overlooked or carelessly
thrust aside. The governments of the world systematically reject both Christ’s
injunction and Tolstoy’s Non-Resistant theory, but while they have been doing
so wars have become more and more terrible, till at last we are faced by the
prospect, perhaps in the near future, of defenseless men, women, and children,
being massacred in millions while our whole world crashes to destruction.-A.M.
Tolstoy always gave away small change to beggars he met, in accord with the
usual practice of religious folk in a country which had no State poor-relief
organization, and also in accord with the injunction ‘Give to him that asketh
of thee!’ He , sometimes admitted that his gift might do harm and that the ‘
man might go and drink it; but he argued that the goodwill on the giver’s part
indicated by the gift was more important than the possible ill-effects to the
Matthew 7:1, “Judge not, that ye be not judged.” Judge의 뜻은, 1)재판하다,
2)판단하다. 따라서 “재판받지 않으려거든 재판하지 말라.”
It certainly deserves serious consideration whether it may not benefit a man
to be forcibly restrained from pursuing an evil course. Confusion arises from a
simultaneous discussion of the actual words attributed to Jesus and of the
general question of what really is true and sensible about man’s relation to
his fellow men. Tolstoy argued, in another place, that Christ’s words should
only be accepted as authoritative because they are true and reasonable, it
therefore will not do to assume that they are true and reasonable because they
are attributed to Christ.-A.M.
Matthew 5:40, “And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy
coat, let him have thy cloke also.” 마태복음 5장 40절 “또 너를
송사하여 속옷을 가지고자 하는 자에게 겉옷까지도 가지게
judge, 및 기타 단어들의 성서상의 번역 참고 바람 judge =
비판하다로 번역되었으나 사전상은 심판하다, 재판하다,
See Confession, p. 12.
A method of punishment frequently practiced in the army under Nicholas I. The
sentence was so many thousand strokes, and the prisoner had to run the gauntlet
between ranks of soldiers, the result often being death form collapse.-A.M.
Tolstoy was an Arbiter of the Peace for about a year in 1862 after the
emancipation of the serfs, his duties being to adjust differences between the
landed proprietors and the newly emancipated serfs.-A.M.
Tolstoy intended no sophistry, but there is unconscious sophistry in the
suggestion that the purpose of the Criminal Courts is to injure certain people.
He leaves unnoticed the benefit those Courts confer by making it plain
what we are not permitted to do. One of the greatest benefits conferred by law
is that it supplies a degree of definiteness to human relations which renders
co-operation possible even among people whose opinions differ. It diminishes the
amount of strife and friction that would otherwise exist.-A.M.
슈트라우스, David Friedrich Strauss, 1808. 1. 27
뷔르템베르크 루트비히스부르크~1874. 2. 8 루트비히스부르크.
독일의 프로테스탄트 철학자, 신학자, 전기작가. 대립
세력들의 투쟁을 통해 사회의 진보를 강조하는 변증법적
철학을 이용하여 〈신약성서〉의 그리스도에 관한 이야기를
신화론적으로 설명함으로써 성서 해석의 새로운 토대를
르낭, (Joseph-)Ernest Renan, 1823. 2. 28 프랑스
트레기에~1892. 10. 2 파리.
프랑스의 철학자·역사가·종교학자, 프랑스 비판철학파의
1863년 〈 예수의 생애 Vie de Jesus〉가 출판되었을 때 교회는
적의에 찬 비난을 퍼부었다. 이 책은 역사에 관한 르낭의
저작 중 최고는 아니지만 오늘날에도 여전히 독자들의
관심을 끌 만하다. 왜냐하면 그리스도교의 성립을 대중적
상상력을 통해 ‘신화적’으로 설명하고 있는데다가 그의
다른 역사저술처럼 메시아주의 문학에 속하기 때문이다.
1864~65년 아내와 함께 소(小)아시아를 여행한 후 연속물인
〈그리스도교 기원사 Histoire des origines du christianisme〉의
일부로 〈예수의 생애〉를 뒤이은 〈사도들 Les Apotres〉(1866)과
〈사도 바울로 Saint Paul〉(1869)를 펴냈다. 이 2권의 책은
소아시아 도시들의 불안정한 프롤레타리아 사이에 어떻게
그리스도교가 퍼질 수 있었는지를 탁월하게 묘사한
것으로서 그가 ‘19세기 지식인은 대중을 새롭게 계몽시킬
수 있을 것인가’하는 문제에 골몰했음을 보여준다.
The translator finds himself in a difficulty when he has to devise an
equivalent for the most improper type of Moscow restaurant.
This passage is an excellent example of Tolst6y’s power of sarcasm. The
scorn he pours both on those who wish Christianity to be a mere epicurean
consolation, and on those who, while criticizing Christianity, see it through
the eyes of the others, is effective; but one should note how, urged by his
moral and intellectual indignation against these people, he slips in a
juxtaposition of brothels and parliaments, which is the first word of an
argument he pushed later to far-reaching and questionable conclusions.-A.M.
This passage, which occurs here incidentally, forms the keynote of some of
Tolstoy’s later economic treatises. He says, and means, that no one has a
right to keep anything anyone else wishes to take. A man who wishes to get
needful work . efficiently done and requires accustomed tools for the purpose
may hardly find himself able to agree with the thesis. One consideration clashes
with another, and in the experience of life we have to deal with comparative
values more often than with absolute and abstract principles.-A.M.
Pugachev was the Cossack leader of a very serious peasant ) revolt in the
time of Catherine II.-A.M.
Where Tolstoy’s translation diverges in meaning from ‘ our Revised and
Authorized Versions, his words are enclosed in square brackets.-A.M.
More than that, as though to prevent any possible doubt as to which law he is
speaking of, he immediately, in this connexion, gives an example-a very striking
example-of a contradiction of the law of Moses with the eternal law of which no
atom can fail; giving the sharpest contradiction to the Mosaic law that occurs
in the Gospels, he says (Luke xvi. i8): ‘Everyone that putteth away his wife
and marrieth another, |ommitteth adultery.’ That is to say that, whereas in
the written law divorce is allowed, in the eternal law it is a sin.- L.T.
저자 주 :이 말의 뜻은 이 말에 대한 해석을 둘러싸고
논쟁하고 있는 뜻과는 거리가 멀다. 예수는 여기서 자기가
어떤 율법을 말하고 있는 가에 대해서 의심을 남겨두지
않으려는 것처럼 바로 다음에 직접 연결하여 일 점 일
획이라도 없어지지 않는 ‘영원한 율법을 말하며 앞에 나온
모세의 율법을 거부하는 좋은 본보기를 보였다. 예수가
모세의 율법을 가장 맹렬하게 반박한 것은 복음성서의(누가
16장 18절)의 다음 구절에서도 발견된다. 「무릇아내를
버리고 다른데 장가드는 자도 간음 함이요, 무릇 버리운
자에게 장가드는 자도 간음함이니라.」- 즉 성문의
율법에서는 이혼을 허용하지만 영월한 율법은 이혼을 죄로
(마태, 마가, 누가 복음)
루그두눔(리옹)의 주교이며 2세기의 대표적인 그리스도교
신학자. 180년경 〈이단들을 반박함 Adversus haereses〉을 써서
영지주의(靈知主義)를 반박했다. 저작 활동을 통해 성서의
정경(正經)·신조·주교직의 권위를 한 단계 더 높게
Here Tolstoy introduces an argument which occurs repeatedly in his works. He
diverts the argument as to whether a man of good will who desires to preserve
the peace is morally justified in forcibly restraining a murderer, by a
reference to the difficulty of judging the facts of each case rightly. The moral
issue is perplexed by the introduction of a simultaneous consideration of the
fact that man is intellectually fallible.-A.M.
2 Timothy 3:16, “All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is
profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in
righteousness:” 디모데후서 3장 16절: 모든 성경은 하나님의
감동으로 된 것으로 교훈과 책망과 바르게 함과 의로
By the Councils of the Church. The expression first occur in Acts xv.
Beatitudes, (Latin beatitudo,”blessedness”), in the Bible, expressions of
praise for those who are considered exemplars of piety and who may consequently
expect a reward from God. Like the hymn or the parable, the beatitude is a
literary form found throughout the Judeo-Christian scriptures.
In the Hebrew scriptures, beatitudes occur primarily in the Wisdom writings
(see Proverbs, Job, Ecclesiastes, Sirach, Wisdom of Solomon, Psalms). They are
not restricted to a single pattern, although they regularly begin with the word
blessed (Psalm 1:1; Proverbs 8:34; Isaiah 56:2; Daniel 12:12). A beatitude is
pronounced on the righteous person who may confidently anticipate earthly
rewards such as peace, material prosperity, and the enjoyment of family (Psalm
41:1-3; 65:4; 112:1-4; 128:1-3; Proverbs 8:32). According to the Old Testament,
the benefits of divine favor are to be enjoyed in the material world.
In the New Testament, beatitudes are most frequent in the Gospels of Matthew
and Luke. They are also found several times in Revelation; three times in Saint
Paul’s Epistle to the Romans (4:7-8, 14:22); and once in the Gospel of John
(20:29). In their formal structure, the New Testament beatitudes recall the
Hebrew examples, but they differ in one important respect: In place of earthly
rewards, the beatitudes of the New Testament emphasize rewards that will be
realized only in the eschatological future (see Eschatology). This aspect is
evident even in the beatitudes that are most closely related to those in the
Hebrew Bible (Romans 4:7-8 and Psalm 32:1-2; James 1:25 and Psalm 1:1). It is
particularly apparent in the Sermon on the Mount and in Revelation.
As a result of their eschatological orientation, the New Testament beatitudes
contain an element of paradox: It is precisely those who appear least
fortunate-the martyrs, the poor, and the destitute-who are declared blessed. The
most familiar examples occur in the Sermon on the Mount by Jesus Christ. Eight
promises are recorded in Matthew 5:3-11 (nine promises, if verse 11 is separated
from verse 10). A shorter version, containing four promises, appears in Luke
6:20-22. The eight beatitudes in Matthew are:
Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.
Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth.
Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be
Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.
Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.
Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.
Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is
the kingdom of heaven.
1예수께서 무리를 보시고 산에 올라가 앉으시니 제자들이
나아온지라2입을 열어 가르쳐 가라사대3심령이 가난한 자는
복이 있나니 천국이 저희 것임이요4애통하는 자는 복이
있나니 저희가 위로를 받을 것임이요5온유한 자는 복이
있나니 저희가 땅을 기업으로 받을 것임이요6의에 주리고
목마른 자는 복이 있나니 저희가 배부를 것임이요7긍휼히
여기는 자는 복이 있나니 저희가 긍휼히 여김을 받을
것임이요8마음이 청결한 자는 복이 있나니 저희가 하나님을
볼 것임이요9화평케 하는 자는 복이 있나니 저희가 하나님의
아들이라 일컬음을 받을 것임이요10의를 위하여 핍박을 받은
자는 복이 있나니 천국이 저희 것임이라11나를 인하여
너희를 욕하고 핍박하고 거짓으로 너희를 거스려 모든 악한
말을 할 때에는 너희에게 복이 있나니
이 구절은 제임스왕 역에는 나와 있지만 한글 개역
성경에는 제거되어 있다. -hs
Griesbach, Johann Jakob
b. Jan. 4, 1745, Butzbach, Hesse [Germany]
d. March 24, 1812, Jena, Thuringia
rationalist Protestant German theologian, the earliest biblical critic to
subject the Gospels to systematic literary analysis.
Griesbach studied at Halle (then belonging to Prussia) under J.S. Semler, and
from 1775 until his death he was professor of New Testament studies at the
University of Jena. He originated the term synoptic to designate the first three
Gospels and, rejecting the traditional view, held that Mark was derived from
Matthew and Luke (the “usage hypothesis”). Griesbach also published a
corrected Greek edition of the New Testament.
Tolstoy sometimes carries his adherence to the letter of Christ’s saying to
an extreme, but in the case of this text it will be noticed that he does not
agree with those Russian sectarians who rely on the surgical operation of
castration as a desirable corrective of sexual desire.-A.M.
Matthew 5:32, “But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving
for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit
adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery.”
It will be noticed that Tolstoy’s translation of this
passage, in the words inserted in square brackets, differs from our Authorized
or Revised Versions and helps to make sense of the passage.-A.M.
Note that this view was alluded to in Anna Karenina (vol. i, chap.
xxiv), where the incident was borrowed from the actual life of Tolstoy’s
brother, Dmitry, who took a woman he had found in a brothel to live with him,
and regarded her as a wife to whom he was bound for life.-A.M.
Tolstoy delighted in absolute laws and was eager to attribute perfection and
finality to those he formulated. But this law, of which he fully approved when
he wrote this book in 1884, no longer satisfied him when in 1889 he wrote the Kreutzer
Sonata and in the Afterword thereto expressed the opinion that man
can best serve God and man by remaining celibate. The explanation of his change
of view lay in the fact that his wife disagreed with his wish to renounce his
property, and he found that his union with her, and even their affection for one
another made it hard for him to adhere to his principles. Marriage was therefore
an obstacle to right life, and as such, it seemed to him, should be shunned by a
Christian. - A.M.
Reuss, Edouard Guillaume Eugene, 1804-1891. Alsatian-French Protestant
theologian; best known for his translation of the Bible(1874-81), with an
introduction and commentaries.-
At a time when Parliament has to deal with the marriage laws, it is in place
to remember that Tolstoy wrote solely of what he considered to be Christian
duty, entirely apart from legal enactment or Church ceremony of any kind. He disapproved
of legal interference with the right of man or woman to form or rescind unions
with one another.-A.M.
Tolstoy’s indictment of the received translation of various passages in the
Gospels has had considerable circulation, and by many readers is accepted as
authoritative. As yet, so far as the present translator knows, no prominent
Churchman has either admitted any of the alleged errors or produced any reasoned
rejoinder to Tolstoy’s assertions. A pronouncement on these matters from some
recognized and impartial authority of admitted competence would therefore be
valuable as a help towards clearing up questions which are as important as they
The only contribution the present translator can make to the matter is to
record the fact that, some fifteen years after What I Believe was
written, he asked Tolstoy whether he still held to the interpretations he had
advanced when dealing with the Gospels. Tolstoy replied that he had ceased to
attach special importance to precise words attributed to Jesus, and admitted
that in his anxiety to counteract the bias he detected in the ‘Orthodox’
translation, he had sometimes overstrained the sense too much in a contrary
direction, as one engaged on demagnetizing a watch may sometimes expose it to
too strong an opposite influence; but he thought his Greek reliable.-A.M.
아내를 버리는 자는 자신이 간음함 외에도 아내마저
A reason Tolstoy ignores for forbidding oaths is, that as the belief (common
in primitive times) that men can stake their lives or possessions on the
veracity of their assertions and that the deity will enforce the penalties
should the oath be a false one, fades away, the use of such oaths becomes
incompatible with intellectual integrity, and therefore fails to accomplish its
object and even conflicts with it.-A.M.
In Russian literally ‘the oath’. The equivalent English expressions,
‘volunteers’ or ‘conscripts’, do not carry the same significance, though
in England they also take an oath of allegiance.-A.M.
에픽테토스, (55경 프리지아 히에라폴리스~135경 에피로스
니코폴리스.), 스토아 학파 철학자. 종교적 경향의
가르침으로 유명하며, 이 때문에 초기 그리스도교
사상가들로부터 존경받았다. 본명은 전하지 않는다.
소년시절 노예였지만 스토아 학파 무소니우스 루프스의
강연을 들을 수 있었다. 후에 자유민이 되었으며 절름발이에
늘 건강이 나빴다. AD 90년 황제 도미티아누스는 그를
로마에서 추방했는데 황제는 자신의 폭정에 반대하는
사람들을 좋게 평가하는 스토아 학파를 탐탁지 않게
생각했다. 에픽테토스는 여생을 니코폴리스에서 보냈다.
세네카 (Lucius Annaeus Seneca), BC 4경 스페인 코르도바~AD 65
로마. 로마의 철학자·정치가·연설가·비극작가. 1세기 중엽
로마의 지도적 지성인이었고, 네로 황제 재위 초기인 54~ 62년에
동료들과 함께 로마의 실질적 통치자였다. 군주정과 그
임무에 관한 세네카의 견해는 안토니네스 시대(안토니우스
피우스, 마르쿠스 아우렐리우스, 코모두스, 138~192)의
인간적이고 자유로운 분위기를 만드는 데 이바지했다.
그동안 스토아주의가 널리 퍼지는 바람에 그의 철학은 계속
살아 있었다. 그의 철학이 그리스도교와 유사성이 있다고
밝혀지자 새로운 지평이 열렸다. 그가 성 바울로를 알고
있었다는 믿음과 이 믿음을 실증하기 위한 가짜 편지 모음도
In Russian Courts the oath was administered on the open Gospels.-A.M.
If Christ wished to lay down that it is wrong ever to use physical force to
prevent any man from doing what he wishes to do (and that is the rule Tolstoy
deduces) it is curious that he gives here an illustration of going two miles
with a man who demands that you accompany him one; for, with regard to the
second mile, there is clearly no reference to the use of physical force, any
more than in the following example of lending to him who asks.-A.M.
= 원수, 적(군)
Or, if that Russian expression sounds strange to English ears, we might call
it ‘the Christian army’.-A.M.
오리게네스Oregenes. 정식 이름은 Oregenes Adamantius.
오리겐이라고도 함.185경 알렉산드리아~254경 페니키아 티레.초기
그리스 교회의 가장 중요한 신학자·성서학자. 대표작은
〈구약성서〉의 6가지 판본을 병기해놓은 〈헥사플라 Hexapla〉이다.
Tolstoy had the Russo-Greek Church primarily in mind, and was writing when
that Church was particularly subservient to the Civil power. Also opinions
were then still current both in the English and in the Eastern Churches to which
assent is now rarely demanded. But he certainly addressed both his rejection
of the Church dogmas and his insistence on the teaching of Jesus to all Churches
Tolstoy counts from the First General Council of Christians at Nicaea, under
Constantine, in a.d. 325.-A.M.
In all the Church’s translations an intentionally false rendering is given:
instead of the words ‘in you’, wherever those words occur the rendering is
given ‘with you’.-L.T.
The English Authorized Version gives ‘with you’, but our Revised Version,
published in 1881, gives ‘among you’, and in a footnote adds the translation
‘in you’; so that the meaning Tolstoy considers correct is not entirely
inaccessible to English readers of the Gospel.-A.M.
(주) 모든 교회의 번역에는 이 구절이 고의적으로
잘못되어 있다. 즉 ‘너희 중에’ (en umin라는 말이 들어 있는
곳은 어디에서나 이 말 대신에 ‘너희와 함께’라는 말이
Marcus Aurelius says: ‘Honor that which is more powerful
than anything on earth, which rules and guides all men. Honor also that which is
most powerful within thyself. The latter is like the former, because it uses
what is within thee to guide thy life.’
Epictetus says: ‘God sowed His seed not only in my father
and grandfather, but in all that live on the earth, especially in those that
reason, for they alone enter into relation with God, through the reason by which
they are united with Him.’
In the book of Confucius it is said: ‘The law of great
science consists in developing and establishing the principle of the light of
reason, which we have received from heaven.’ That proposition is repeated
several times, and serves as the basis of Confucius’s teaching.-L.T.
주: 마르쿠스 아우렐리우스는 이렇게 말했다. [이
지구상에서 보다 위력있는 것을 존경하라. 위력은 모든
사람을 지배하고 인도한다. 또한 네 마음 속에서 가장
위력있는 것을 존경하라. 마음 속에서 위력있는 것이
세상에서 위력있는 것과 동일하다. 왜냐하면 마음속의
위력이 너희 마음 속에 있는 것을 이용하여 너희 생활을
에픽테투스는 말한다: [하나님은 그의 종자를 나의
아버지와 조상뿐 아니라, 지상에 있는 모든 것, 특히 이성을
가진 자들에게 보내었다. 왜냐하면 이성을 가진 자만이
이성을 중개로 하여 하나님과 관계를 맺고 이성에 의해서
하나님과 하나가 되기 때문이다.
공자의 책에는 이런 말이 기록되어 있다. [위대한 학문의
법칙은 우리들이 하늘로부터 받은 이성의 빛을 개발하고
확증하는데에 있다] 이 명제는 몇번씩 되풀이 되어 있으며,
공자의 가르침의 기초를 형성한다.
The reference is to two disasters that occurred in Russia at the time Tolstoy
was writing this book.-A.M.
주: 서커스 건물은 1883년 러시아 부활절 기간에 세운 목조
건물로 불이나서 모두 타버렸는데, 불이 났을 때 문을
열수가 없어서 그 건물 안에 있는 모든 사람들은 전부 불에
타 죽었다고 함.
The word hlikia-age, time of life, is incorrectly
translated ‘stature’. So the whole expression means; can add an hour to
주:이 말은 정교 성경 구절에서 잘못 번역되어
있다. hlikia란 말은 연령-생의 시간을 말한다. 그러므로
이 문장의 전체의미는 [너희는 너희 삶의 시간을 한시간도
덧붙일 수 없다]는 뜻이다.
We are so accustomed to the religious assertion of a physical
resurrection and to the supposition that the only alternative to that is the
denial (commonly made by materialists) of any life beyond the grave, that many
people find it difficult to grasp what Tolstoy is here saying. His argument is
that even now, in the present existence, our only real life lies in what
results from the workings of our reasonable consciousness, that voice within
which makes us ‘sons of God’, and not in our rapidly changing and perishing
physical body, and he looks forward not to a cessation of existence after the
final disintegration of our body, as materialists suppose will be the case, but
to a continuance of that sonship to God which is even now our only real life.
This perception is more fully and clearly brought out in On Life,
which will appear in the nest volume of this edition. -A.M.
The English Revised Version accords with Tolstoy’s translation, and has
been followed here.-A.M.
doxa, as in many other passages, is here quite wrongly translated by
the word ‘glory’; doxa, from dokew), means opinion, judgment,
주: doxa는 여기에서도 여러 구절에서처럼 ‘영광’이라는
말로 해석되었는데, 이것은 잘못된 번역이다. doxa는 dokevw에서
파생된 말로 견해. 판단. ‘교리’라는 말이다.
The judgment (krsi") does not mean the
judgment, but the division.-L.T.
The actual words used by Tertullian were, Cerium quia impossible. One
might amend the above passage to make it read: ‘Others have repeated this,
assuming that the assertion of impossibilities is the best method of inculcating
Like St. Simeon Stylites and the other Stylites, who are more highly honored
in the Eastern than in the Western world.--A.M.
Christ was led into the wilderness in order there to be
tempted (Matt. iv. 3-7). The deception told Christ that he Was not a Son of God
if he could not turn stones into bread. Christ replied: ‘I can live without
bread; I live by that which was breathed into me by God.’ Then the deception
said: ‘If you live by that which was breathed into you by God, throw yourself
down from this high place; you will kill your flesh, but the spirit breathed
into you by God will not perish.’ Christ replied: ‘It is the will of God
that I should live in the flesh; to kill my flesh means to act contrary to the
will of God-to tempt God’ (Matt. iv. 8-n). Then the deception said: ‘If that
is so, then serve your flesh as all men do, and your flesh will reward you.’
Christ replied: ‘I am not the owner of my flesh. My life is in the spirit; but
I cannot destroy my flesh, because my spirit is in my flesh by the will of God,
and therefore only by living in the flesh can I serve my Father, God.’ And
Christ departed from the wilderness into the world.-L.T.
주: 누가복음 4장 1절, 2절: 그리스도는
마귀에게 시험을 받으러 광야로 가서 시험을 받으시더라.
마태복음 4장 3절, 4절: 마귀가 그리스도께 말하기를 [당신이
만일 이 들을 떡으로 만들지 못하면 당신은 하나님의 아들이
아니다.] 그리스도께서 대합하여 가라사대 사람이 떡으로만
살 것이 아니요, 하나님의 입으로 나오는 모든 말씀으로 살
것이라 하였느리라]하시니 이에 마귀가 말하기를 [만일
당신이 하나님이 불어 넣어준 것으로 산다면 높은 데서 뛰어
내리라 당신은 육체를 죽이겠지만 그러나 하나님이 불어
넣어 준 정신을 결코 죽지 않는다.] 이에 그리스도는
대답하여 가라사대, [육체로 된 나의 삶은 하나님의
의지이다. 육체를 죽이는 것은 하나님의 뜻에 어긋나는 행위
즉 하나님을 시험해보는 행위이다.] 마태복음 4장 8-11절: 그
때에 마귀는 말하였다. [만일 그렇다면 다른 사람들이 하는
것처럼 당신도 육체를 섬겨라 육체가 보상할 것이다]
그리스도는 대답하였다. [나는 육체에 대해서 무력하다.
삶은 정신 안에 있다. 그러나 나는 육체도 파괴할 수 없다.
왜냐하면 정신은 하나님의 뜻에 의해 육체안에 있기
때문이다. 그래서 육체안에 살면서도 나의 하나님 아버지께
봉사할 수 있다.] 이렇게 하여 그리스도는 광야에서
It was common for Moscow workmen to live in a corner of a room or passage,
generally not even screened off from the rest of the room in which other people,
besides the owner and his family, had other corners.-A.M.
This is a reference to the common Russian practice of having a foreign nurse,
governess, or tutor for young children, that they may learn a foreign language
in the nursery.-A.M.
The Russian schools are State institutions.-A.M.
The defense of such a life that one often hears from parents is amazing. ‘I
want nothing’, say the parents; ‘this kind of life is hard for me, but as I
love my children I bear it for their sakes.’ That is to say, I know by
undoubted experience that our life is unhappy, and therefore ... I educate my
children so that they shall be as unhappy as I am. And therefore, out of my love
for them, I place them in the full physical and moral contagion of a town; I
hand them over to strangers who have only a mercenary aim in educating them; and
so physically, morally, and mentally I take pains to injure my children. And
this contention has to serve as justification for the irrational life the
parents themselves lead!-L.T.
This book was written in 1884; and the figures relate to the nineteenth
The wearing of over-shoes or goloshes to keep one’s feet dry and warm and
to be able on entering a house to kick them off and have clean shoes, is here
instanced as a sign of distinction from the peasant, who usually wore nothing
over his high boots.-A.M.
We have here a very sweeping conclusion, a serious objection to which is
that it is desirable to be able to co-operate with one’s fellows, and
co-operation is practically impossible if those engaged on an undertaking do not
know what they may expect of their fellow workers.-A.M.
The reference is to the practice of hanging a heavy block, or log, over a
deposit of honey. When a bear tries to take the honey he knocks himself against
the log, which swings back and hits him. The bear then strikes more fiercely at
the log, which rebounding, strikes him still more heavily, and so on, until, it
is said, the bear is sometimes killed by the blows he receives.-A.M.
Poverty, in Russian, is bednost, from the same root as beda, a
Tolstoy has in mind a Russian country peasant, whom he contrasts with a rich
townsman, and the description relates to things as they were under the Tsars in
the pro-Revolutionary days.-A.M.
Such as the autos-da-fe of the Inquisition, or the decapitations and
burnings of the Raskoluiki.
This sentence is remarkable as showing that Tolst6y had then already reached
the conclusion that all force-using Government should be condemned. Things have
altered much in Russia both in Church and State since this book was written. The
use of violence has certainly not diminished, but the present Dictatorship
realizes that, while relying on the G.P.U. for support, it cannot tolerate the
teaching of Jesus.-A.M.
Before the generation had passed away to whom Tolstoy first issued this book,
the Church in Russia had been disendowed and disestablished and the words
‘Religion is the people’s opium’ were painted in large letters on the
walls of the churches by order of the authorities.-A.M.
A favourite phrase of the Slavophils, ardent patriots, who regarded Russia
and her institutions as far superior to anything existing in the democratic
As a matter of fact, banishment to Australia had ceased some twenty years
before Tolstoy wrote this, but the memory of legal barbarities committed in
distant countries lingers long in men’s minds, as is illustrated by frequent
references in England to the knout, the use of which was abolished generations
The amazing submission shown by the Russian people to the misrule they
suffered under the Tsars for centuries, and, stranger still, to the greater
oppression they have endured since the Bolsheviks seized power and organized a
Dictatorship supported by the Cheka and the G.P.U., may be partly explained by
the habit of submission deeply engrained in them, to which Tolstoy alludes.-A.M.
At the time Tolstoy was preparing this work, V. I. Alexeyev was his son’s
tutor. Alexeyev had been an active Socialist agitator at the time when the
movement was still new in Russia. He says: ‘Sometimes we’ (Tolstoy and he)
‘started a conversation on economics and social themes. I had a copy of the
Gospels, left from the days of my Socialist propaganda among the people.
Passages relating to social questions were underlined in it and I often pointed
these out to Tolstoy.’ It is to the Socialist propaganda on behalf of the poor
that Tolstoy refers in this passage. (See the Life of Tolstoy,
vol. ii, pp. 14, 15 in this edition.)-A.M.
When any great evil, such as slavery or war, begins to fall into disrepute
and the time for its abolition is approaching, there is sure to a be a long
transition period during which those who are on the side of its abolition may
do, or may seem to do, more harm than good by the action they take, as in the
case of conscientious objectors to a just war. But Tolst6y felt no doubt on the
This book appeared when de Vogue was writing his work Le reman russe,
and not having before him Tolstoy’s subsequent pronouncements on Art, nor of
course the stories, novels, and plays he wrote later, he relied too much on
these few one-sided words, and by his comments misled a whole string of French,
English, and American critics, who, since then-overlooking what Tolstoy said
later in a series of essays deliberately dealing with the problem-have again and
again repeated the silly parrot-cry that from the time he began to concern
himself with religion Tolstoy ‘abandoned art’.-A.M.
This is a logical and quite inevitable conclusion from the non-resistant
position-that the use of physical force to prevent men doing what they please
is immoral. It is therefore very necessary that that position should be examined
and carefully tested, as I have tried to do in my Life of Tolstoy. -A.M.
Some of Tolstoy’s most vivid recollections, as readers of Tales of Army
Life will know, related to the Crimean War fought against the French and the
English and of which he wrote a remarkable account in Sevastopol.-A.M.
N. N. Miklukha-MakUy was a distinguished Russian explorer (1846-88) who
investigated the manners and customs of the inhabitants of New Guinea and