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Pacifism


평화주의 (平和主義)

Einstein, Albert

아인슈타인

 

Introduction

Recognized in his own time as one of the most creative intellects in human history, Albert Einstein, in the first 15 years of the 20th century, advanced a series of theories that for the first time asserted the equivalence of mass and energy and proposed entirely new ways of thinking about space, time, and gravitation. His theories of relativity and gravitation were a profound advance over the old Newtonian physics and revolutionized scientific and philosophic inquiry. (see also mass-energy equivalence)

Herein lay the unique drama of Einstein's life. He was a self-confessed lone traveller; his mind and heart soared with the cosmos, yet he could not armour himself against the intrusion of the often horrendous events of the human community. Almost reluctantly he admitted that he had a "passionate sense of social justice and social responsibility." His celebrity gave him an influential voice that he used to champion such causes as pacifism, liberalism, and Zionism. The irony for this idealistic man was that his famous postulation of an energy-mass equation, which states that a particle of matter can be converted into an enormous quantity of energy, had its spectacular proof in the creation of the atomic and hydrogen bombs, the most destructive weapons ever known.

 

Early life and career.

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14, 1879. The following year his family moved to Munich, where Hermann Einstein, his father, and Jakob Einstein, his uncle, set up a small electrical plant and engineering works. In Munich Einstein attended rigidly disciplined schools. Under the harsh and pedantic regimentation of 19th-century German education, which he found intimidating and boring, he showed little scholastic ability. At the behest of his mother, Einstein also studied music; though throughout life he played exclusively for relaxation, he became an accomplished violinist. It was then only Uncle Jakob who stimulated in Einstein a fascination for mathematics and Uncle Cäsar Koch who stimulated a consuming curiosity about science.

By the age of 12 Einstein had decided to devote himself to solving the riddle of the "huge world." Three years later, with poor grades in history, geography, and languages, he left school with no diploma and went to Milan to rejoin his family, who had recently moved there from Germany because of his father's business setbacks. Albert Einstein resumed his education in Switzerland, culminating in four years of physics and mathematics at the renowned Federal Polytechnic Academy in Zürich.

After his graduation in the spring of 1900, he became a Swiss citizen, worked for two months as a mathematics teacher, and then was employed as examiner at the Swiss patent office in Bern. With his newfound security, Einstein married his university sweetheart, Mileva Maric, in 1903.

Early in 1905 Einstein published in the prestigious German physics monthly Annalen der Physik a thesis, "A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions," that won him a Ph.D. from the University of Zürich. Four more important papers appeared in Annalen that year and forever changed man's view of the universe.

The first of these, "Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen" ("On the Motion--Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat--of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid"), provided a theoretical explanation of Brownian motion. In "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt" ("On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light"), Einstein postulated that light is composed of individual quanta (later called photons) that, in addition to wavelike behaviour, demonstrate certain properties unique to particles. In a single stroke he thus revolutionized the theory of light and provided an explanation for, among other phenomena, the emission of electrons from some solids when struck by light, called the photoelectric effect.

Einstein's special theory of relativity, first printed in "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper" ("On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies"), had its beginnings in an essay Einstein wrote at age 16. The precise influence of work by other physicists on Einstein's special theory is still controversial. The theory held that, if, for all frames of reference, the speed of light is constant and if all natural laws are the same, then both time and motion are found to be relative to the observer. (see also special relativity)

In the mathematical progression of the theory, Einstein published his fourth paper, "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?" ("Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?"). This mathematical footnote to the special theory of relativity established the equivalence of mass and energy, according to which the energy E of a quantity of matter, with mass m, is equal to the product of the mass and the square of the velocity of light, c. This relationship is commonly expressed in the form E = mc2.

Public understanding of this new theory and acclaim for its creator were still many years off, but Einstein had won a place among Europe's most eminent physicists, who increasingly sought his counsel, as he did theirs. While Einstein continued to develop his theory, attempting now to encompass with it the phenomenon of gravitation, he left the patent office and returned to teaching--first in Switzerland, briefly at the German University in Prague, where he was awarded a full professorship, and then, in the winter of 1912, back at the Polytechnic in Zürich. He was later remembered from this time as a very happy man, content in his marriage and delighted with his two young sons, Hans Albert and Edward.

In April 1914 the family moved to Berlin, where Einstein had accepted a position with the Prussian Academy of Sciences, an arrangement that permitted him to continue his researches with only the occasional diversion of lecturing at the University of Berlin. His wife and two sons vacationed in Switzerland that summer and, with the eruption of World War I, were unable to return to Berlin. A few years later this enforced separation was to lead to divorce. Einstein abhorred the war and was an outspoken critic of German militarism among the generally acquiescent academic community in Berlin, but he was primarily engrossed in perfecting his general theory of relativity, which he published in Annalen der Physik as "Die Grundlagen der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie" ("The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity") in 1916. The heart of this postulate was that gravitation is not a force, as Newton had said, but a curved field in the space-time continuum, created by the presence of mass. This notion could be proved or disproved, he suggested, by measuring the deflection of starlight as it travelled close by the Sun, the starlight being visible only during a total eclipse. Einstein predicted twice the light deflection that would be accountable under Newton's laws.

His new equations also explained for the first time the puzzling irregularity--that is, the slight advance--in the planet Mercury's perihelion, and they demonstrated why stars in a strong gravitational field emitted light closer to the red end of the spectrum than those in a weaker field. (see also red shift)

While Einstein awaited the end of the war and the opportunity for his theory to be tested under eclipse conditions, he became more and more committed to pacifism, even to the extent of distributing pacifist literature to sympathizers in Berlin. His attitudes were greatly influenced by the French pacifist and author Romain Rolland, whom he met on a wartime visit to Switzerland. Rolland's diary later provided the best glimpse of Einstein's physical appearance as he reached his middle 30s:

Einstein is still a young man, not very tall, with a wide and long face, and a great mane of crispy, frizzled and very black hair, sprinkled with gray and rising high from a lofty brow. His nose is fleshy and prominent, his mouth small, his lips full, his cheeks plump, his chin rounded. He wears a small cropped mustache. (By permission of Madame Marie Romain Rolland.)

Einstein's view of humanity during the war period appears in a letter to his friend, the Austrian-born Dutch physicist Paul Ehrenfest:

The ancient Jehovah is still abroad. Alas, he slays the innocent along with the guilty, whom he strikes so fearsomely blind that they can feel no sense of guilt. . . . We are dealing with an epidemic delusion which, having caused infinite suffering, will one day vanish and become a monstrous and incomprehensible source of wonderment to later generations. (From Otto Nathan and Heinz Norden [eds.], Einstein on Peace; Simon and Schuster, 1960.)

It would be said often of Einstein that he was naïve about human affairs; for example, with the proclamation of the German Republic and the armistice in 1918, he was convinced that militarism had been thoroughly abolished in Germany.

 

International acclaim.

International fame came to Einstein in November 1919, when the Royal Society of London announced that its scientific expedition to Príncipe Island, in the Gulf of Guinea, had photographed the solar eclipse on May 29 of that year and completed calculations that verified the predictions made in Einstein's general theory of relativity. Few could understand relativity, but the basic postulates were so revolutionary and the scientific community was so obviously bedazzled that the physicist was acclaimed the greatest genius on Earth. Einstein himself was amazed at the reaction and apparently displeased, for he resented the consequent interruptions of his work. After his divorce he had, in the summer of 1919, married Elsa, the widowed daughter of his late father's cousin. He lived quietly with Elsa and her two daughters in Berlin, but, inevitably, his views as a foremost savant were sought on a variety of issues.

Despite the now deteriorating political situation in Germany, Einstein attacked nationalism and promoted pacifist ideals. With the rising tide of anti-Semitism in Berlin, Einstein was castigated for his "Bolshevism in physics," and the fury against him in right-wing circles grew when he began publicly to support the Zionist movement. Judaism had played little part in his life, but he insisted that, as a snail can shed his shell and still be a snail, so a Jew can shed his faith and still be a Jew.

Although Einstein was regarded warily in Berlin, such was the demand for him in other European cities that he travelled widely to lecture on relativity, usually arriving at each place by third-class rail carriage, with a violin tucked under his arm. So successful were his lectures that one enthusiastic impresario guaranteed him a three-week booking at the London Palladium. He ignored the offer, but, at the request of the Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann, toured the United States in the spring of 1921 to raise money for the Palestine Foundation Fund. Frequently treated like a circus freak and feted from morning to night, Einstein nevertheless was gratified by the standards of scientific research and the "idealistic attitudes" that he found prevailing in the United States.

During the next three years Einstein was constantly on the move, journeying not only to European capitals but also to the Orient, to the Middle East, and to South America. According to his diary notes, he found nobility among the Hindus of Ceylon, a pureness of soul among the Japanese, and a magnificent intellectual and moral calibre among the Jewish settlers in Palestine. His wife later wrote that, on steaming into one new harbour, Einstein had said to her, "Let us take it all in before we wake up."

In Shanghai a cable reached him announcing that he had been awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics "for your photoelectric law and your work in the field of theoretical physics." Relativity, still the centre of controversy, was not mentioned.

Though the 1920s were tumultuous times of wide acclaim, and some notoriety, Einstein did not waver from his new search--to find the mathematical relationship between electromagnetism and gravitation. This would be a first step, he felt, in discovering the common laws governing the behaviour of everything in the universe, from the electron to the planets. He sought to relate the universal properties of matter and energy in a single equation or formula, in what came to be called a unified field theory. This turned out to be a fruitless quest that occupied the rest of his life. Einstein's peers generally agreed quite early that his search was destined to fail because the rapidly developing quantum theory uncovered an uncertainty principle in all measurements of the motion of particles: the movement of a single particle simply could not be predicted because of a fundamental uncertainty in measuring simultaneously both its speed and its position, which means, in effect, that the future of any physical system at the subatomic level cannot be predicted. While fully recognizing the brilliance of quantum mechanics, Einstein rejected the idea that these theories were absolute and persevered with his theory of general relativity as the more satisfactory foundation to future discovery. He was widely quoted on his belief in an exactly engineered universe: "God is subtle but he is not malicious." On this point, he parted company with most theoretical physicists. The distinguished German quantum theorist Max Born, a close friend of Einstein, said at the time: "Many of us regard this as a tragedy, both for him, as he gropes his way in loneliness, and for us, who miss our leader and standard-bearer." This appraisal, and others pronouncing his work in later life as largely wasted effort, will have to await the judgment of later generations.

The year of Einstein's 50th birthday, 1929, marked the beginning of the ebb flow of his life's work in a number of aspects. Early in the year the Prussian Academy published the first version of his unified-field theory, but, despite the sensation it caused, its very preliminary nature soon became apparent. The reception of the theory left him undaunted, but Einstein was dismayed by the preludes to certain disaster in the field of human affairs: Arabs launched savage attacks on Jewish colonists in Palestine; the Nazis gained strength in Germany; the League of Nations proved so impotent that Einstein resigned abruptly from its Committee on Intellectual Cooperation as a protest to its timidity; and the stock market crash in New York City heralded worldwide economic crisis.

Crushing Einstein's natural gaiety more than any of these events was the mental breakdown of his younger son, Edward. Edward had worshipped his father from a distance but now blamed him for deserting him and for ruining his life. Einstein's sorrow was eased only slightly by the amicable relationship he enjoyed with his older son, Hans Albert.

As visiting professor at Oxford University in 1931, Einstein spent as much time espousing pacifism as he did discussing science. He went so far as to authorize the establishment of the Einstein War Resisters' International Fund in order to bring massive public pressure to bear on the World Disarmament Conference, scheduled to meet in Geneva in February 1932. When these talks foundered, Einstein felt that his years of supporting world peace and human understanding had accomplished nothing. Bitterly disappointed, he visited Geneva to focus world attention on the "farce" of the disarmament conference. In a rare moment of fury, Einstein stated to a journalist,

They [the politicians and statesmen] have cheated us. They have fooled us. Hundreds of millions of people in Europe and in America, billions of men and women yet to be born, have been and are being cheated, traded and tricked out of their lives and health and well-being.

Shortly after this, in a famous exchange of letters with the Austrian psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, Einstein suggested that people must have an innate lust for hatred and destruction. Freud agreed, adding that war was biologically sound because of the love-hate instincts of man and that pacifism was an idiosyncrasy directly related to Einstein's high degree of cultural development. This exchange was only one of Einstein's many philosophic dialogues with renowned men of his age. With Rabindranath Tagore, Hindu poet and mystic, he discussed the nature of truth. While Tagore held that truth was realized through man, Einstein maintained that scientific truth must be conceived as a valid truth that is independent of humanity. "I cannot prove that I am right in this, but that is my religion," said Einstein. Firmly denying atheism, Einstein expressed a belief in "Spinoza's God who reveals himself in the harmony of what exists." The physicist's breadth of spirit and depth of enthusiasm were always most evident among truly intellectual men. He loved being with the physicists Paul Ehrenfest and Hendrick A. Lorentz at The Netherlands' Leiden University, and several times he visited the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena to attend seminars at the Mt. Wilson Observatory, which had become world renowned as a centre for astrophysical research. At Mt. Wilson he heard the Belgian scientist Abbé Georges Lemaître detail his theory that the universe had been created by the explosion of a "primeval atom" and was still expanding. Gleefully, Einstein jumped to his feet, applauding. "This is the most beautiful and satisfactory explanation of creation to which I have ever listened," he said. (see also big-bang model)

In 1933, soon after Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany, Einstein renounced his German citizenship and left the country. He later accepted a full-time position as a foundation member of the school of mathematics at the new Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. In reprisal, Nazi storm troopers ransacked his beloved summer house at Caputh, near Berlin, and confiscated his sailboat. Einstein was so convinced that Nazi Germany was preparing for war that, to the horror of Romain Rolland and his other pacifist friends, he violated his pacifist ideals and urged free Europe to arm and recruit for defense. (see also Princeton University)

Although his warnings about war were largely ignored, there were fears for Einstein's life. He was taken by private yacht from Belgium to England. By the time he arrived in Princeton in October 1933, he had noticeably aged. A friend wrote,

It was as if something had deadened in him. He sat in a chair at our place, twisting his white hair in his fingers and talking dreamily about everything under the sun. He was not laughing any more.

 

Later years in the United States.

In Princeton Einstein set a pattern that was to vary little for more than 20 years. He lived with his wife in a simple, two-story frame house and most mornings walked a mile or so to the Institute, where he worked on his unified field theory and talked with colleagues. For relaxation he played his violin and sailed on a local lake. Only rarely did he travel, even to New York. In a letter to Queen Elisabeth of Belgium, he described his new refuge as a "wonderful little spot, . . . a quaint and ceremonious village of puny demigods on stilts." Eventually he acquired American citizenship, but he always continued to think of himself as a European. Pursuing his own line of theoretical research outside the mainstream of physics, he took on an air of fixed serenity. "Among my European friends, I am now called Der grosse Schweiger ("The Great Stone Face"), a title I well deserve," he said. Even his wife's death late in 1936 did not disturb his outward calm. "It seemed that the difference between life and death for Einstein consisted only in the difference between being able and not being able to do physics," wrote Leopold Infeld, the Polish physicist who arrived in Princeton at this time.

Niels Bohr, the great Danish atomic physicist, brought news to Einstein in 1939 that the German refugee physicist Lise Meitner had split the uranium atom, with a slight loss of total mass that had been converted into energy. Meitner's experiments, performed in Copenhagen, had been inspired by similar, though less precise, experiments done months earlier in Berlin by two German chemists, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. Bohr speculated that, if a controlled chain-reaction splitting of uranium atoms could be accomplished, a mammoth explosion would result. Einstein was skeptical, but laboratory experiments in the United States showed the feasibility of the idea. With a European war regarded as imminent and fears that Nazi scientists might build such a "bomb" first, Einstein was persuaded by colleagues to write a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt urging "watchfulness and, if necessary, quick action" on the part of the United States in atomic-bomb research. This recommendation marked the beginning of the Manhattan Project.

Although he took no part in the work at Los Alamos, New Mexico, and did not learn that a nuclear-fission bomb had been made until Hiroshima was razed in 1945, Einstein's name was emphatically associated with the advent of the atomic age. He readily joined those scientists seeking ways to prevent any future use of the bomb, his particular and urgent plea being the establishment of a world government under a constitution drafted by the United States, Britain, and Russia. With the spur of the atomic fear that haunted the world, he said "we must not be merely willing, but actively eager to submit ourselves to the binding authority necessary for world security." Once more, Einstein's name surged through the newspapers. Letters and statements tumbled out of his Princeton study, and in the public eye Einstein the physicist dissolved into Einstein the world citizen, a kind "grand old man" devoting his last years to bringing harmony to the world.

The rejection of his ideals by statesmen and politicians did not break him, because his prime obsession still remained with physics. "I cannot tear myself away from my work," he wrote at the time. "It has me inexorably in its clutches." In proof of this came his new version of the unified field in 1950, a most meticulous mathematical essay that was immediately but politely criticized by most physicists as untenable.

Compared with his renown of a generation earlier, Einstein was virtually neglected and said himself that he felt almost like a stranger in the world. His health deteriorated to the extent that he could no longer play the violin or sail his boat. Many years earlier, chronic abdominal pains had forced him to give up smoking his pipe and to watch his diet carefully.

On April 18, 1955, Einstein died in his sleep at Princeton Hospital. On his desk lay his last incomplete statement, written to honour Israeli Independence Day. It read in part: "What I seek to accomplish is simply to serve with my feeble capacity truth and justice at the risk of pleasing no one." His contribution to man's understanding of the universe was matchless, and he is established for all time as a giant of science. Broadly speaking, his crusades in human affairs seem to have had no lasting impact. Einstein perhaps anticipated such an assessment of his life when he said, "Politics are for the moment. An equation is for eternity." (P.Mi.)

아인슈타인 (Albert Einstein).

1879. 3. 14 독일 뷔르템베르크 울름~1955. 4. 18 미국 뉴저지 프린스턴.

독일의 물리학자.

 
아인슈타인
20세기초의 창조성이 뛰어난 대표적 지식인이었던 알베르트 아인슈타인은 20세기초 15년 동안 질량과 에너지의 등가를 단언하고 공간·시간·중력에 관한 새로운 사고방식을 제안한 일련의 이론들을 내놓았다. 그의 상대성 원리와 중력에 관한 이론들은 뉴턴 물리학을 넘어서는 심오한 진전이었고 과학적 탐구와 철학적 탐구에 혁명을 일으켰으며, 1921년 노벨 물리학상을 받았다. 그는 자신이 '사회 정의와 사회적 책임이라는 열정적 감각'을 갖고 있음을 인정했다. 아인슈타인은 그의 명성 덕택으로 평화주의·자유주의·시오니즘과 같은 대의를 지지하는 데 영향력이 있었다. 그러나 아이러니컬하게도 이러한 이상주의적인 사람이 물질 입자가 엄청난 양의 에너지로 바뀔 수 있다는 에너지-질량 방정식 가설로 지금까지 알려진 가장 파괴적인 무기인 원자폭탄과 수소폭탄의 창조를 증명했다.

초기생애와 경력

그가 태어난 이듬해 그의 가족은 뮌헨으로 이사하여 아버지 헤르만 아인슈타인과 숙부 야코프 아인슈타인은 조그마한 전기공장을 세우고 전기일을 시작했다. 뮌헨에서 엄격한 학교에 다녔는데, 19세기 독일 교육의 엄하고 현학적인 단체훈련 속에서 아인슈타인은 학생으로서의 능력을 거의 보이지 못하고 무섭고 지루함을 느꼈다. 어머니의 명령으로 음악도 공부하게 되었는데, 생애를 통해 기분전환으로만 연주했음에도 불구하고 그는 능숙한 바이올린 연주자였다. 그무렵 단지 숙부 야코프 체자르 코흐만이 아인슈타인의 수학과 과학에 대한 관심을 자극시켜주었다. 12세가 된 아인슈타인은 '거시 세계'의 수수께끼를 푸는 데 헌신하려는 결심을 하게 된다. 3년 후 역사·지리·어학에서 낮은 점수를 받아 졸업장도 못 받고 학교를 나와 가족을 다시 만나기 위해 이탈리아 밀라노로 갔는데, 그의 가족은 아버지의 사업이 망해서 밀라노로 이사한 지 얼마 안 된 상태였다. 아인슈타인은 스위스에서 공부를 다시 시작했는데, 유명한 취리히의 연방공과대학에서 4년간 물리학·수학 공부에 몰두했다.

1900년 봄, 학교를 졸업한 후에 스위스 시민이 되었고 2개월간 수학교사로 일한 후에 베른에 있는 스위스 특허 사무소 심사관으로 채용되었다. 새로이 안정을 찾게 되면서 1903년 대학시절의 애인 밀레바 마리치와 결혼했다. 1905년초에 아인슈타인은 독일의 유명한 월간 학술지 〈물리학 연보 Annalen der Physik〉에 〈분자 차원의 새로운 결정 A New Determination of Molecular Dimensions〉이라는 논문을 냈는데, 이 논문으로 나중에 취리히대학교에서 박사학위를 받게 되었다. 그 해의 〈물리학 연보〉에 4개의 더 중요한 논문을 발표했고 이는 인간의 우주에 대한 견해를 영구히 바꾸어버렸다.

이중에서 첫번째 논문인 〈정지 액체 속에 떠 있는 작은 입자들의 (열의 분자운동론에 의한) 운동에 대하여 Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen〉는 브라운 운동에 대해 이론적으로 설명해주었다. 〈 빛의 발생과 변화에 관련된 발견에 도움이 되는 견해에 대하여 Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt〉에서 빛은 파동적 작용에 더하여 입자에만 고유하게 나타나는 일정한 성질들을 보여주는 개별적 양자(量子:후에 광자로 불림)로 이루어져 있다고 가정했다. 그는 이 한 가지 가정으로 빛 이론에 혁명을 일으켰고 여러 현상들 가운데서 광전효과(光電效果)라고 하는, 빛을 비추었을 때 일어나는 몇몇 고체로부터의 전자(電子) 방출에 대해 설명할 수 있었다.

아인슈타인의 특수상대성이론은 〈운동하는 물체의 전기역학에 대하여 Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper〉에 처음으로 실렸다. 특수상대성이론은 모든 좌표계에서 빛의 속도가 일정하고 모든 자연 법칙이 똑같다면, 시간과 물체의 운동은 관찰자에 따라 상대적이라는 것이다. 특수상대성이론의 수학적 표현에 대해 아인슈타인은 그의 4번째 논문 〈 물체의 관성은 에너지 함량에 의존하는가Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig〉를 썼다. 이 논문에서 질량과 에너지의 등가를 확립했는데, 이에 따르면 어떤 양의 물질이 갖는 에너지는 그 물질의 질량에 빛의 속도의 제곱을 곱한 값, 즉 E=mc2이다.

특수상대성이론이 알려짐에 따라 아인슈타인은 유럽의 저명한 물리학자 대열에 서게 되었다. 그는 중력 현상을 새로 포함시키려고 이론을 계속 발전시켰다. 특허사무소를 떠나서 처음에는 스위스에서, 그리고 잠시 프라하의 독일대학교에서 정교수로 있었으며, 1912년 겨울 취리히의 연방공과대학으로 돌아왔다. 그는 그때를 결혼생활에 만족했고 어린 두 아들 한스·에트바르트와 즐거웠던 행복한 시절로 회상했다.

1914년 4월 베를린으로 이주하여 프로이센 과학 아카데미에서 자리를 얻었는데, 아카데미 당국은 아인슈타인이 때때로 베를린대학교에서 강의를 하면서 연구를 계속하도록 허가해주었다. 아내와 아이들은 스위스에서 휴가를 보내고 있었는데, 제1차 세계대전이 일어나 베를린으로 돌아올 수가 없었다. 어쩔 수 없는 헤어짐으로 몇 해 뒤에 아인슈타인은 이혼하게 되었다. 그는 전쟁을 혐오했고 일반적으로 순종적인 학자사회에서 독일 군국주의에 대한 공공연한 비판자가 되었으나, 일반상대성이론을 완성하는 데 주로 열중했다. 일반상대성이론은 1916년 〈물리학 연보〉에 〈 일반상대성이론의 기초Die Grundlagen der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie〉로 출판되었다. 이 가설의 핵심은 중력이, 뉴턴이 이야기했던 것과 같은 힘이 아니라 시공연속체 속의 질량이 존재에 의해 생긴 굽어진 장(場)이라는 것이었다. 이러한 의미는 별빛이 태양 가까이를 지날 때 별빛의 휘어짐에 의해 증명되거나 반증될 수가 있는 것이었는데, 별빛은 개기일식 동안에만 볼 수가 있다. 아인슈타인은 뉴턴 법칙으로는 설명할 수 없는 2배의 빛의 휘어짐을 예측했다.

그의 새로운 방정식들은 또한 수성의 근일점(近日點)의 당혹스러운 불규칙성(약간의 이동)을 최초로 설명해주었고, 강한 중력장 속의 별들이 약한 장의 별들이 내는 스펙트럼보다 적색에 가까운 스펙트럼을 내는 이유를 증명했다. 아인슈타인은 전쟁이 끝나는 것과 일식이 일어나는 상황에서 그의 이론이 시험될 기회를 기다리면서, 점차 평화주의적 입장을 취하게 되었다.

국제적인 환호

1919년 아인슈타인은 국제적인 명성을 얻게 되었는데 그해에 런던 왕립학회는 기니 만에 있는 프린시페 섬에서 있었던 과학탐사에서 그해 5월 29일의 일식을 사진 찍었고 아인슈타인의 일반상대성이론에서의 예측을 검증시킨 계산값들을 내었다고 공표했던 것이다. 사람들은 상대성이론을 거의 이해하지 못했지만, 그 기본 가설들은 대단히 혁명적이었으며 과학계는 이 물리학자가 지구에서 가장 위대한 천재로 환호받은 데 강렬한 인상을 받았다. 아인슈타인은 그러한 반응에 깜짝 놀랐고 아주 기분이 상했는데, 왜냐하면 그결과 중단된 그의 연구 때문이었다. 이혼 후 1919년 그의 아버지의 작고한 사촌의 딸로 과부였던 엘자와 재혼했다.

당시 독일의 악화되어가는 정치적 상황에도 불구하고, 아인슈타인은 국가주의를 공격했고 평화주의 사상을 장려했다. 베를린에서 반유대주의 물결이 거세어지자, 아인슈타인은 '물리학에서의 볼셰비키주의자' 범주로 구분되었고, 그가 시오니즘 운동을 대중적으로 지지하기 시작하자 우익집단들의 그에 대한 격노가 거세졌다. 아인슈타인은 베를린에서 적대를 받았으나 유럽의 다른 도시에서 그에게 요청한 것 때문에 상대성이론을 강의하러 유럽의 여러 도시들을 널리 다녔는데, 보통 3등열차를 타고다녔고 늘 바이올린을 지니고 있었다. 이후 3년 동안에도 유럽의 수도들뿐만 아니라 동양·중동·남아메리카 등지도 다녔다. 여기에는 실론 섬, 일본, 팔레스타인 등도 포함된다. 1921년 상하이[上海]에서 "당신의 광전법칙과 이론물리학 분야에서의 업적으로 노벨 물리학상을 받게 되었다"는 국제전보를 받게 되었는데, 상대성이론에 대한 언급은 없었다.

1920년대의 시끄러운 상황에도 불구하고 새로운 연구, 즉 전자기와 중력 사이의 수학적 관계를 찾아내려는 노력을 중단하지 않았다. 그가 느끼기에 이것은 전자로부터 행성까지의 우주 안에 있는 모든 것의 작용을 지배하는 일반 법칙을 발견하는 첫 단계가 되는 것이었다. 그는 단일한 방정식이나 공식으로 물질과 에너지의 보편적 속성들을 연관시키려고 했는데 이는 나중에 통일장이론으로 불리게 되었다. 이것은 그의 나머지 삶을 차지한 성과 없는 질문으로 판명되었다. 아인슈타인의 동료들은 일반적으로 그의 탐구가 실패할 운명을 갖고 있다는 데에 일찍부터 동의했는데, 왜냐하면 급속히 발전하고 있던 양자이론은 입자의 운동에 대한 모든 측정에서의 불확정성원리를 밝혀냈기 때문이다. 단일한 입자의 운동은 그 입자의 속도와 위치를 동시에 측정할 때의 근본적 불확정성 때문에 단순하게 예측될 수가 없었는데, 이는 사실상 원자구성입자 수준의 어떤 물리계의 미래를 예측할 수가 없음을 의미한다. 아인슈타인은 양자역학의 탁월성을 충분히 인정했음에도 불구하고, 이 이론이 절대적이고 미래의 발견에 대한 더욱 만족스러운 기초로서 일반상대론에 맞설 수 있다는 관념을 거부했다. 그는 정확하게 만들어진 우주에 대한 믿음, 즉 "신은 교묘하지만 심술궂지는 않다"라는 말을 인용했다. 이러한 점에서 그는 대부분의 이론물리학자들과 의견이 상이했다. 외롭게 그의 길을 고집했고 결과적으로 낭비되어버린 노력이었다고 이야기되는 그에 대한 평가는 후대의 판단에 맡겨야 할 것이다.

1931년 교환교수로 옥스퍼드대학교를 방문했을 때, 과학을 논의하는 것만큼의 많은 시간을 평화주의를 옹호하는 데 보냈다. 그는 1932년 제네바에서 일정이 잡혀 있었던 세계비무장회의에 대중적 압력을 가하려고 아인슈타인 반전기금을 설립했다. 이 회담이 실패하자 그는 세계 평화와 인간의 이해를 지지해왔던 여러 해의 노력이 아무런 소득이 없었음을 깨닫게 되었다. 아인슈타인은 과학적 진리가 인간성과 독립해 있는 타당한 진리로 개념화되어야 한다고 주장했다. "나는 이것에 대해 옳음을 증명할 수는 없지만 이것은 나의 종교이다"라고 말했다. 그는 무신론을 강하게 반대했는데, "존재하는 것의 조화 안에서 스스로를 드러내 보이는 스피노자의 하느님"에 대한 믿음을 표현했다. 그는 네덜란드 레이덴대학교의 물리학자 파울 에렌페스트와 헨드리크 A.로렌츠와 함께 있는 것을 좋아했으며, 세미나에 참석하려고 패서디나에 있는 캘리포니아공과대학을 몇 차례에 걸쳐 방문했다. 1933년 아돌프 히틀러가 독일 집권자가 된 후 독일 시민권을 포기하고 독일을 떠났다. 뒤에 그는 프린스턴대학교 고등연구소 수학과정 기초임원이라는 정식자리를 받아들였다. 그결과 나치주의자들은 그가 애용하는 베를린 근처에 있는 여름 별장을 수색하고 그의 배를 압수했다. 그는 독일이 전쟁을 준비하고 있음을 확신하고 유럽 자유세계가 방위력을 보충하고 무장하도록 촉구했다.

미국에서의 말년

프린스턴에서 아인슈타인은 20년 이상을 거의 변화가 없는 생활을 유지했다. 그는 소박한 2층 목조가옥에서 아내와 살았고, 아침마다 산책을 하거나 연구소까지 걸어다녔다. 연구소에서 통일장이론을 연구했고 동료들과 토론했다. 마침내 그는 미국 시민권을 획득했지만, 자신을 항상 유럽인으로 생각했다. 전쟁이 임박함에 따라 나치 과학자들이 '원자탄'을 최초로 만들 것이라는 공포감으로 아인슈타인은 루스벨트 대통령에게 "경계를 해야 하며 만일 필요하다면 빠른 조치를 취하라"는 편지를 썼다. 아인슈타인이 루스벨트 대통령에게 했던 그러한 권고는 맨해튼 계획의 시작을 의미했다.

그는 뉴멕시코 로스알라모스에서의 작업에 참여하지 않았으며, 1945년 히로시마[廣島]가 괴멸될 때까지 핵분열탄이 만들어지고 있었다는 것을 몰랐으나 아인슈타인의 이름은 원자시대의 등장과 강하게 연결되었다. 그는 미래의 원자탄 사용을 막을 방법을 찾고 있었던 과학자들과 즉시 합류했고, 그의 긴급한 탄원은 미국·영국·러시아가 기초한 규정 밑에 있는 세계정부를 수립하는 것이었다. 세계를 괴롭힌 핵공포에 자극받아 아인슈타인은 "우리는 단지 의도만 해서는 안 되고, 세계 안전에 필요한 속박된 권위에 우리 자신을 복속시키려는 적극적인 열성을 가져야 한다"고 이야기했다. 정치인과 정치꾼에 의하여 좌절했지만 가장 주요하게 매달렸던 것은 여전히 물리학이었기 때문에 극복할 수 있었다. 1955년 아인슈타인은 프린스턴 병원에서 잠을 자다가 숨을 거두었다. 그의 책상에는 이스라엘 독립일에 대해 씌어진 미완성의 언명들이 적혀 있었는데 부분적으로 다음과 같은 내용이 있었다. "내가 성취하고자 추구했던 것은 단지 나의 부족한 능력으로 진리와 아무도 즐겁게 하지 못하는 위험에 대한 정의에 봉사하고자 한 것이다." 우주에 대한 인간의 이해에 대한 그의 기여는 비길 데 없으며, 그는 언제나 과학의 거인이었다. 넓게 말해서 인간사에 대한 그의 개혁운동은 지속적인 영향을 갖지 못한 것으로 보인다. 아인슈타인이 "정치는 순간을 위한 것이다. 방정식은 영원을 위한 것이다"라고 말했을 때 그는 아마도 자신의 삶에 대한 평가를 예견했던 것 같다.

P. Michelmore 글 | 李相元 참조집필

Major Works

MAJOR WORKS

SCIENTIFIC PAPERS: "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt," in Annalen der Physik (1905); "Über die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der Wärme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Flüssigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen," in Annalen der Physik (1905); "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper," in Annalen der Physik (1905), the initial paper on special relativity; "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?" in Annalen der Physik (1905); "Zur Theorie der Brownschen Bewegung," in Annalen der Physik (1906), translated separately as Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement (1926); "Zur Theorie der Lichterzeugung und Lichtabsorption," in Annalen der Physik (1906); "Plancksche Theorie der Strahlung und die Theorie der spezifischen Wärme," in Annalen der Physik (1907); "Entwurf einer Verallegemeinerten Relativitätstheorie und einer Theorie der Gravitation," in Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik (1913); "Grundlagen der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie," in Annalen der Physik (1916), on the general theory of relativity; "Strahlungs-emission und - absorption nach der Quantentheorie," in Verhandlungen der Deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft (1916); "Quantentheorie der Strahlung," in Physikalische Zeitschrift (1917); "Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases," in Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1924 and 1925). Some of Einstein's important papers were collected in the joint work (with H.A. Lorentz and H. Minkowski), H.A. Lorentz: Das Relativitätsprinzip, eine Sammlung von Abhandlungen (1913; trans. as H.A. Lorentz: The Principle of Relativity: A Collection of Original Memoirs on the Special and General Theory of Relativity, 1923). See also The Meaning of Relativity, which includes the generalized theory of gravitation (1953), the first edition of Einstein's unified-field theory.

OTHER WORKS: About Zionism: Speeches and Letters, Eng. trans. by Sir Leon Simon (1931); Builders of the Universe (1932); with Sigmund Freud, Warum Krieg? (Why War?, Eng. trans. by Stuart Gilbert, 1933); with Leopold Infeld, The Evolution of Physics (1938); The World As I See It (Eng. trans. by Alan Harris, 1949); Out of My Later Years (1950).

Bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY. JOHN STACHEL et al. (eds.), The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein (1987- ), contains all his papers, notes, and letters, with companion translation volumes. HELEN DUKAS and BANESH HOFFMAN (eds.), Albert Einstein, the Human Side: New Glimpses from His Archives (1979), samples the letters of Albert Einstein to provide a good introduction to his personality and thought.

Studies of his life and work include PHILIPP FRANK, Einstein: His Life and Times, trans. from German (1947, reprinted 1989), a scientific biography focusing on Einstein's early life and achievement; ANTONINA VALLENTIN, The Drama of Albert Einstein (also published as Einstein, a Biography, 1954; originally published in French, 1954), a personal story of Einstein's European years; PETER MICHELMORE, Einstein: Profile of the Man (1962), a popular, richly anecdotal treatment of Einstein as man and scientist; RONALD W. CLARK, Einstein: The Life and Times (1971, reissued 1984), a distinguished, definitive, and well-illustrated work; BANESH HOFFMAN and HELEN DUKAS, Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel (1972, reissued 1986), a significant biography, laced with a thorough but exciting interpretation of Einstein's scientific work; JEREMY BERNSTEIN, Einstein, 2nd ed. (1991), a biography emphasizing the scientific theories; CORNELIUS LANCZOS, The Einstein Decade: 1905-1915 (1974), a biography that includes detailed synopses of each Einstein paper written during the years covered; A.P. FRENCH (ed.), Einstein: A Centenary Volume (1979), a collection of essays, reminiscences, illustrations, and quotations--for the general audience; ABRAHAM PAIS, "Subtle is the Lord . . .": The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (1982), a scientific biography; PETER A. BUCKY and ALLEN G. WEAKLAND, The Private Albert Einstein (1992), a chronicle of conversations and personal anecdotes as remembered by one of Einstein's friends; MICHAEL WHITE and JOHN GRIBBIN, Einstein: A Life in Science (1994); and DENIS BRIAN, Einstein: A Life (1996).

Studies of Einstein's impact on science and philosophy include PAUL ARTHUR SCHILPP (ed.), Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist, 3rd ed., 2 vol. (1970), a discussion by eminent scholars; LINCOLN BARNETT, The Universe and Dr. Einstein, 2nd rev. ed. (1957, reissued 1974), a lucid exposition of Einstein's contribution to science; THOMAS F. GLICK (ed.), The Comparative Reception of Relativity (1987); and DAVID CASSIDY, Einstein and Our World (1995). (P.Mi. /Ed.)

참고문헌 (아인슈타인)

저서

상대성 이론(미래과학 1) : A. 아인슈타인, 김종오 역, 미래, 1992

나는 세상을 어떻게 보는가 : A. 아인슈타인, 박상훈 역, 겨레, 1990

물리 이야기 : A. 아인슈타인·L. 인펠트 공저, 지동섭 역, 한울, 1990

Out of My Later Years : A. Einstein, 1950

Builders of the Universe : A. Einstein, 1932

연구서

새로운 물리를 찾아서 - 물리학자와 양자론 : B. L. 클라인, 차동우 역, 전파과학사, 1993

상대성이론의 세계 : 제임스 콜먼, 다문독서연구회 편역, 다문, 1993

아인슈타인의 방 - 프린스턴 과학 학술 연구소 이야기 : 에드 레지스, 박애주 역, 하서, 1993

아인슈타인과의 두뇌 게임 : 나대일, 동아일보사, 1993

아인슈타인을 넘어서 - 초끈이론으로 본 우주 : 마차오 가쿠·제니퍼 트레이너 공저, 박영재 역, 전파과학사, 1993

아인슈타인의 철학적 견해와 상대성 이론(일빛신서 9) : D . P. 그라바노프, 이영기 역, 일빛, 1992

아인슈타인의 우주(미래과학 5) : 나이절 콜더, 김기대 역, 미래, 1992

아인쉬타인과 손수레 - 손수레의 발명에서 상대성 이론까지 과학 발달의 역사 : 피에르 튀일리에 외, 정성호 역, 오늘, 1991

아인슈타인이 옳았는가? : 클리포드 윌, 이해심 역, 범양사출판부, 1991

아인슈타인의 세계 전5 : NHK 아인슈타인팀 편, 한문식 역, 고려원미디어, 1991

일반상대론의 물리적 기초(현대과학신서 1) : D. W. 시아마, 박승재·김수용 공역, 전파과학사, 1990

철학속의 과학여행 - 아인슈타인 : 베네슈 호프만, 최혁순 역, 동아출판사, 1989

아인슈타인(현대과학신서 2·3) : J. 번스틴, 장회익 역, 전파과학사, 1976

우주와 아인슈타인 박사(박영문고 103) : L. 바네트, 정병걸 역, 박영사, 1959

The Intellectual Mastery of Nature : Theoretical Physics from Ohm to Einstein : C. Jungnickel·R. McCormmach, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1986

   

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