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The Theory and Conduct of War

4 Bibliography





4.1 Theory of war.

CARL VON CLAUSEWITZ, On War, 3 vol. in 1 (1873; originally published in German, 3 vol., 1832-34), remains a classic and is available in many later editions both in the original and in English translation, of which the one edited by and with commentary by MICHAEL HOWARD and PETER PARET (1976) can be recommended. Other outstanding classical philosophical treatments are IMMANUEL KANT, Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Essay (1903, reissued 1972; originally published in German, 1795), also available in later editions, some entitled Eternal Peace; JOHN STUART MILL, On Liberty (1859) and Considerations on Representative Government (1861), both available in the selection published as Political Writings (1981), in "The Great Books of the Western World" series; and JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU, A Lasting Peace Through the Federation of Europe, and The State of War, trans. from French (1917).

Explanations of war as a product of imperialism are found in J.A. HOBSON, Imperialism, 3rd rev. ed. (1938, reprinted 1988); and in Marxist writings. Psychological theories of war are best expressed in SIGMUND FREUD, Civilization, War, and Death, new ed., ed. by JOHN RICKMAN (1953, reprinted 1968); and ethological theories in ROBERT ARDREY, The Territorial Imperative (1966, reissued 1978); and KONRAD LORENZ, On Aggression (1966, reprinted 1974; originally published in German, 1963). NORMAN ANGELL, The Great Illusion: A Study of the Relation of Military Power in Nations to Their Economic and Social Advantage (1910), is an early economic study, available in many later editions. REINHOLD NIEBUHR, Moral Man and Immoral Society (1932, reprinted 1960), analyzes war from the ethical point of view.

A comprehensive modern analysis is QUINCY WRIGHT, A Study of War, 2nd ed. (1964). Other major contemporary general analyses are RAYMOND ARON, The Century of Total War (1954, reprinted 1985); KENNETH N. WALTZ, Man, the State, and War (1959, reprinted 1965); and HANS J. MORGENTHAU and KENNETH W. THOMPSON, Politics Among Nations, 6th ed. (1985). On nuclear war, see HERMAN KAHN, On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios (1965, reprinted 1986). INIS L. CLAUDE, JR., Swords into Plowshares, 4th ed. (1971, reprinted 1984), discusses United Nations approaches to peace. Later studies include EVAN LUARD, War in International Society: A Study in International Sociology (1986), a broad and systematic view of war in history; J. DAVID SINGER et al., Explaining War: Selected Papers from the Correlates of War Project (1979); and MELVIN SMALL and J. DAVID SINGER, Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1816-1980, rev. ed. (1982). (J.Fr.)


4.2 Law of war.

Among comprehensive works of reference quality are L. OPPENHEIM, International Law, a Treatise, 8th ed., ed. by H. LAUTERPACHT, vol. 2, Disputes, War, and Neutrality (1962); and GEORG SCHWARZENBERGER, International Law as Applied by International Courts and Tribunals, vol. 2, The Law of Armed Conflict (1968), an interpretation of the law chiefly through court decisions.

For the history of the laws of war, see GEOFFREY BEST, Humanity in Warfare (1980). For the development of the law of war as it exists today, see JEAN S. PICTET (ed.), The Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949: Commentary, 4 vol. (1952-60); CLAUDE PILLOUD et al. (eds.), Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (1987; originally published in French, 1986); G.I.A.D. DRAPER, The Red Cross Conventions (1958); WALDEMAR A. SOLF and J. ASHLEY ROACH (eds.), Index of International Humanitarian Law (1987); and L.C. GREEN, Essays on the Modern Law of War (1985).

Special treatments of developments brought about by particular military campaigns include ROBERT R. BOWIE, Suez 1956 (1974); GEORGES ABI-SAAB, The United Nations Operation in the Congo, 1960-1964 (1978); ABRAM CHAYES, The Cuban Missile Crisis (1974, reprinted 1987); RICHARD A. FALK (ed.), The Vietnam War and International Law, 4 vol. (1968-76); ALLAN GERSON, Israel, the West Bank, and International Law (1978); ALBERTO R. COLL and ANTHONY C. AREND (eds.), The Falklands War: Lessons for Strategy, Diplomacy, and International Law (1985); and SCOTT DAVIDSON, Grenada: A Study in Politics and the Limits of International Law (1987). For internal conflicts, see RICHARD A. FALK (ed.), The International Law of Civil War (1971); and HEATHER A. WILSON, International Law and the Use of Force by National Liberation Movements (1988).

Laws on particular weapons, means of conflict, and areas of war are explored in HOWARD S. LEVIE, The Code of International Armed Conflict, 2 vol. (1986); MORRIS GREENSPAN, The Modern Law of Land Warfare (1959); D.P. O'CONNELL, The International Law of the Sea, 2 vol. (1982-84); ANN VAN WYNEN THOMAS and A.J. THOMAS, JR., Development of International Legal Limitations on the Use of Chemical and Biological Weapons, 2 vol. (1968); and PETER ROWE, Defence: The Legal Implications: Military Law and the Laws of War (1987).

War crimes as a branch of military law are analyzed in ROBERT K. WOETZEL, The Nuremberg Trials in International Law: With a Postlude on the Eichmann Case (1962); ANN TUSA and JOHN TUSA, The Nuremberg Trial (1983); PHILIP R. PICCIGALLO, The Japanese on Trial: Allied War Crimes Operations in the East, 1945-1951 (1979); L.C. GREEN, Superior Orders in National and International Law (1976); and YORAM DINSTEIN, The Defence of "Obedience to Superior Orders" in International Law (1965). (P.J.R.)


4.3 Military law.

Development of military law in the United States is traced in UNITED STATES. ARMY. JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL'S CORPS, The Army Lawyer: A History of the Judge Advocate General's Corps, 1775-1975 (1975); and Military Law Review Bicentennial Issue (1975), an anthology of articles by 17 authors. Both are useful for the general reader as well as the specialist. A concise history of British military law is found in Peter Rowe's work cited above. FREDERICK B. WIENER, Civilians Under Military Justice: The British Practice Since 1689, Especially in North America (1967), offers a general history of the subject, with a focus on the British administration of 18th-century America. A special aspect of military law is treated in NICO KEIJZER, Military Obedience (1978). INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR MILITARY LAW AND THE LAW OF WAR, The Present Evolution of Military Justice, 2 vol. (1981), studies systems of military law throughout the world on the basis of national reports from 25 countries. See also JAMES STUART-SMITH, "Military Law: Its History, Administration, and Practice," Law Quarterly Review, 85:478-504 (October 1969). Journals cited in the previous section also contain many articles on the military law of many countries. (J.S.-Sm.)


4.4 Defense economics.

GAVIN KENNEDY, Defence Economics (1983), is a general survey written for the nonspecialist and providing information on a broad spectrum of questions of military appropriations and expenditures. Historical studies include J.M. WINTER (ed.), War and Economic Development (1975), addressing the economic consequences of war on the preindustrial economies of Europe; GAUTAM SEN, The Military Origins of Industrialization and International Trade Rivalry (1983), exploring the influence of military technology on the industrial development of Europe; and EMILE BENOIT, Defense and Economic Growth in Developing Countries (1973), challenging the assumption that defense spending is incompatible with economic growth and attempting to show that defense spending has actually assisted economic development in some Third World countries. SAADET DEGER and ROBERT WEST (eds.), Defence, Security, and Development (1987), is a collection of articles by scholars from several countries who criticize Benoit's method and conclusions and provide a more complex assessment of the connection between economic growth and national security. A detailed study of governmental defense planning in poorer economies is presented in STEPHANIE G. NEUMAN (ed.), Defense Planning in Less-Industrialized States: The Middle East and South Asia (1984). For a view that defense spending inhibits economic performance, based on international comparative data and statistical analysis, see ROBERT W. DEGRASSE, JR., Military Expansion, Economic Decline: The Impact of Military Spending on U.S. Economic Performance, expanded ed. (1983). CHRISTIAN SCHMIDT (ed.), The Economics of Military Expenditures: Military Expenditures, Economic Growth, and Fluctuations (1987), collects papers by most of the world's leading specialists in defense economics, providing a rich agenda in the contribution of economic analysis to defense dilemmas.

A rare comparative study of defense industries in both capitalist and communist economies of such countries as the United States, the Soviet Union, France, Germany, Sweden, Czechoslovakia, Italy, China, Israel, the United Kingdom, and some representatives of the Third World is provided in NICOLE BALL and MILTON LEITENBERG (eds.), The Structure of the Defense Industry: An International Survey (1983). (G.Ke.)


4.5 Strategy.

EDWARD MEAD EARLE et al. (eds.), Makers of Modern Strategy: Military Thought from Machiavelli to Hitler (1943, reprinted 1971), remains a most competent anthology on the development of the military mind and art. Its worthy successor is PETER PARET (ed.), Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (1986), which repeats three of the essays and provides more than 20 new ones.

For works that explore the complex correlation between military campaigns and such nonmilitary factors as economic, technological, and human resources, psychological conditions of people involved, and political decision making by statesmen and generals, the reader will have to turn to broad military histories, such as JAMES R.M. BUTLER (ed.), Grand Strategy, 6 vol. in 7 (1956-76), an analysis of the high-level conduct of war by the British High Command; GORDON WRIGHT, The Ordeal of Total War, 1939-1945 (1968); HENRI MICHEL, The Second World War, 2 vol. (1975; originally published in French, 1968-69); and PETER CALVOCORESSI, GUY WINT, and JOHN PRITCHARD, Total War: Causes and Courses of the Second World War, 2nd rev. ed. (1989).

The role of the U.S. Army and the War Department in World War II is studied in MAURICE MATLOFF and EDWIN M. SNELL, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 2 vol. (1953-59, reprinted 1968); KENT ROBERTS GREENFIELD (ed.), Command Decisions (1960, reprinted 1984); and RONALD H. SPECTOR, Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan (1985). Russian and Soviet strategists are discussed in JOHN ERICKSON, Stalin's War with Germany (1975), and The Road to Berlin: Continuing the History of Stalin's War with Germany (1983). (Ma.M./M.E.Ho.)

Strategy in the nuclear age is surveyed in JOHN BAYLIS et al., Contemporary Strategy, 2nd rev. ed., 2 vol. (1987); INSTITUTE FOR STRATEGIC STUDIES, Problems of Modern Strategy (1970); and LAWRENCE MARTIN (ed.), Strategic Thought in the Nuclear Age (1979). LAWRENCE FREEDMAN, The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy, 2nd ed. (1989), summarizes the history of thought on nuclear strategy. FRED KAPLAN, The Wizards of Armageddon (1983), is a look at the thinkers and strategists themselves.

The classics of postwar strategic thinking include BERNARD BRODIE, Strategy in the Missile Era (1959, reprinted 1965); HERMAN KAHN, On Thermonuclear War, 2nd ed. (1961, reprinted 1978), and On Escalation: Metaphors and Scenarios (1965, reprinted 1986); and THOMAS C. SCHELLING, The Strategy of Conflict (1960, reprinted 1980), and Arms and Influence (1966, reprinted 1976). Among later contributions, EDWARD N. LUTTWAK, Strategy: The Logic of War and Peace (1987), is a complex scholarly treatment of strategy as a system of thought; and MICHAEL HOWARD, The Causes of Wars and Other Essays (1983), is a collection of previously published works by an influential author.

The theory of deterrence is considered in PATRICK M. MORGAN, Deterrence: A Conceptual Analysis, 2nd ed. (1983); and carefully analyzed in ALEXANDER L. GEORGE and RICHARD SMOKE, Deterrence in American Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice (1974). PAUL BRACKEN, The Command and Control of Nuclear Forces (1983), is another authoritative treatment; and JOHN J. MEARSHEIMER, Conventional Deterrence (1983), applies the deterrence theory to land warfare.

Special branches of strategic thought are examined in GEOFFREY TILL, Maritime Strategy and the Nuclear Age, 2nd ed. (1984); and M.J. ARMITAGE and R.A. MASON, Air Power in the Nuclear Age, 1945-84: Theory and Practice, 2nd ed. (1985). On Soviet strategic thinking, see JOHN BAYLIS and GERALD SEGAL (eds.), Soviet Strategy (1981). Influence of the Vietnam experience is studied in HARRY G. SUMMERS, JR., On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War (1982). (L.D.Fr.)


4.6 Tactics of land warfare.

For a general introduction, see MARTIN VAN CREVELD, Technology and War: From 2000 B.C. to the Present (1989). JOHN KEEGAN, The Illustrated Face of Battle: A Study of Agincourt, Waterloo, and the Somme, rev. ed. (1989), is excellent on the tactics of three critical, widely separated battles; see also ARTHER FERRILL, The Origins of War: From the Stone Age to Alexander the Great (1985), which covers the period indicated while arguing that tactics underwent no basic change from the earliest time to Waterloo. The best book on tribal warfare remains HARRY HOLBERT TURNEY-HIGH, Primitive War: Its Practice and Concepts, 2nd ed. (1971). Biblical warfare is covered in YIGAEL YADIN, The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands: In the Light of Archaeological Study, 2 vol. (1963; originally published in Hebrew, 1963). On ancient warfare in general, see PETER CONNOLLY, Greece and Rome at War (1981); and VICTOR DAVIS HANSON, The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in Classical Greece (1989). Of several excellent books on medieval warfare, J.F. VERBRUGGEN, The Art of Warfare in Western Europe During the Middle Ages: From the Eighth Century to 1340 (1977; originally published in Dutch, 1954), is perhaps the strongest on tactics. The most expert contemporary work on early modern warfare is undoubtedly GEOFFREY PARKER, The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West, 1500-1800 (1988). The early 18th century is covered in DAVID CHANDLER, The Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough (1976), excellently researched and well written. For subsequent developments in the same century, see CHRISTOPHER DUFFY, The Military Experience in the Age of Reason (1988); as well as ROBERT S. QUIMBY, The Background of Napoleonic Warfare: The Theory of Military Tactics in Eighteenth-Century France (1957, reprinted 1968), a meticulous inquiry into tactics before and during the French Revolution.

LARRY H. ADDINGTON, The Patterns of War Since the Eighteenth Century (1984); and HEW STRACHAN, European Armies and the Conduct of War (1983), are good general accounts. Two older works that can still be read with profit are THEODORE ROPP, War in the Modern World (1959, reprinted 1981); and J.F.C. FULLER, The Conduct of War, 1789-1961: A Study of the Impact of the French, Industrial, and Russian Revolutions on War and Its Conduct (1961, reprinted 1981). WILLIAM McELWEE, The Art of War: Waterloo to Mons (1974), is probably the best of many works on 19th-century warfare. For the tactics of World War I in general, see TONY ASHWORTH, Trench Warfare, 1914-1918: The Live and Let Live System (1980); on the offensive tactics developed by the Germans, TIMOTHY T. LUPFER, The Dynamics of Doctrine: The Changes in German Tactical Doctrine During the First World War (1981), is excellent. For World War II, B.H. LIDDELL HART, History of the Second World War (1971, reissued 1982), though flawed on some counts, remains the single most comprehensive operational history. On armoured warfare, see F.W. VON MELLENTHIN, Panzer Battles: A Study of the Employment of Armor in the Second World War, trans. from German (1956, reissued 1982); and CHARLES MESSENGER, The Blitzkrieg Story (1976); for the ways of countering it, see JOHN WEEKS, Men Against Tanks: A History of Anti-Tank Warfare (1975). The story of the Korean War is ably told in CALLUM A. MacDONALD, Korea, the War Before Vietnam (1987); that of the Arab-Israeli Wars, in TREVOR N. DUPUY, Elusive Victory: The Arab-Israeli Wars, 1947-1974 (1978, reissued 1984). For the Vietnam War, see ANDREW F. KREPINEVICH, JR., The Army and Vietnam (1986). MICHAEL CARVER, War Since 1945 (1980, reissued 1990), provides an excellent general overview. (M.v.C.)


4.7 Naval tactics.

The most extensive work devoted exclusively to naval tactics is S.S. ROBISON and MARY L. ROBISON, A History of Naval Tactics from 1530 to 1930: The Evolution of Tactical Maxims (1942). GIUSEPPE FIORAVANZO, A History of Naval Tactical Thought (1979; originally published in Italian, 1973), is an authoritative later analysis. WAYNE P. HUGHES, JR., Fleet Tactics: Theory and Practice (1986), includes history but is more attentive to the art and science of tactics.

WILLIAM LEDYARD RODGERS, Naval Warfare Under Oars, 4th to 16th Centuries (1939, reprinted 1967), interprets galley warfare. The history of tactics in the age of fighting sail as presented by JULIAN S. CORBETT in his numerous works, from Drake and the Tudor Navy: With a History of the Rise of England as a Maritime Power, 2 vol. (1898, reissued 1988), to England in the Mediterranean: A Study of the Rise and Influence of British Power Within the Straits, 1603-1713 (1904, reprinted 1987), remains unsurpassed. A.T. MAHAN, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783 (1890), available in many later editions, is a classic naval history. Studies of tactics in the age of steam and steel include BRADLEY A. FISKE, The Navy as a Fighting Machine, 2nd ed. (1918, reprinted 1988); ROMEO BERNOTTI, The Fundamentals of Naval Tactics (1912; originally published in Italian, 1910); and W. BAINBRIDGE-HOFF, Elementary Naval Tactics (1894). RICHARD HOUGH, The Great War at Sea, 1914-1918 (1983), explores the tactics of naval operations in World War I. The transition from battleship to aircraft carrier is discussed in BERNARD BRODIE, A Layman's Guide to Naval Strategy (1942). Studies of naval tactics in World War II are found in comprehensive histories, such as SAMUEL E. MORISON, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, 15 vol. (1947-62); S.W. ROSKILL, The War at Sea, 1939-1945, 3 vol. in 4 (1954-61); and FRIEDRICH RUGE, Der Seekrieg: The German Navy's Story, 1939-1945 (1957; originally published in German, 1954; also published as Sea Warfare, 1939-1945: A German Viewpoint). CLARK G. REYNOLDS, The Fast Carriers: The Forging of an Air Navy (1968, reprinted 1978), studies carrier operations. (W.P.H.)


4.8 Air tactics.

CHARLES HARVARD GIBBS-SMITH, Aviation: An Historical Survey from Its Origins to the End of World War II, 2nd ed. (1985), and Flight Through the Ages: A Complete, Illustrated Chronology from the Dreams of Early History to the Age of Space Exploration (1974), provide basic introduction to the development of airplanes as a military force. ROBIN HIGHAM, Air Power: A Concise History, 3rd rev. ed. (1988); and BILL GUNSTON (ed.), Aviation: The Complete Story of Man's Conquest of the Air (1978), are general surveys. EDWARD H. SIMS, Fighter Tactics and Strategy, 1914-1970, 2nd ed. (1980); and ROBERT L. SHAW, Fighter Combat: The Art and Science of Air-to-Air Warfare, 2nd ed. (1988), focus on fighter planes. R.A. MASON (ed.), War in the Third Dimension: Essays in Contemporary Air Power (1986), emphasizes continuity, innovation, and convergence in development of military aeronautics. LON O. NORDEEN, Air Warfare in the Missile Age (1985), provides an excellent overview of air tactics from 1964 to the 1980s. (D.MacI.)


4.9 Logistics.

MARTIN VAN CREVELD, Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton (1977), is an insightful ground-breaking history of logistics. Classic studies of the subject include GEORGE CYRUS THORPE, George C. Thorpe's Pure Logistics: The Science of War Preparation, new ed., with an introduction by STANLEY L. FALK (1986); G.C. SHAW, Supply in Modern War (1938), mainly on subsistence; S.L.A. MARSHALL, The Soldier's Load and the Mobility of a Nation (1950, reprinted 1980); and HENRY E. ECCLES, Logistics in the National Defense (1959, reprinted 1981), with emphasis on theory.

The 18th-century logistics systems are examined in LEE KENNETT, The French Armies in the Seven Years' War: A Study in Military Organization and Administration (1967, reprinted 1986); and ERNA RISCH, Supplying Washington's Army (1981). The U.S. Army experience is surveyed in JAMES A. HUSTON, The Sinews of War: Army Logistics 1775-1953 (1966, reprinted 1988); EDWIN A. PRATT, The Rise of Rail-Power in War and Conquest, 1833-1914 (1916), an old but still useful survey; ROBERT GREENHALGH ALBION and JENNIE BARNES POPE, Sea Lanes in Wartime: The American Experience 1775-1945, 2nd ed. (1968); and C.B.A. BEHRENS, Merchant Shipping and the Demands of War, rev. ed. (1978), on the overseas supply. ROLAND G. RUPPENTHAL, Logistical Support of the Armies, 2 vol. (1953-59, reprinted 1985-87); and RICHARD M. LEIGHTON and ROBERT W. COAKLEY, Global Logistics and Strategy, 2 vol. (1955-68), provide the U.S. Army's official history of logistics in World War II, in the European theatre and in the framework of coalition strategy, respectively. R. ELBERTON SMITH, The Army and Economic Mobilization (1959, reprinted 1985), analyzes the U.S. Army's World War II economic mobilization.

CHARLES J. HITCH and ROLAND N. McKEAN, The Economics of Defense in the Nuclear Age (1960, reissued 1978), is the "bible" of the managerial reforms in the U.S. Defense Department; and NEVILLE BROWN, Strategic Mobility (1963), explores a facet of post-World War II international strategy and logistics. (R.M.Le.)


4.10 Intelligence.

RICHARD DEACON, Spyclopedia: The Comprehensive Handbook of Espionage (1987), is an original reference work providing concise information on intelligence organizations of more than 30 countries within a chronology of 25 centuries of intelligence activity. JOHN RANELAGH, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA, rev. ed. (1987), offers a well-documented nonpartisan historical analysis of the organization and personalities; it can be complemented by JOHN PATRICK QUIRK et al., The Central Intelligence Agency: A Photographic History (1986). JAMES BAMFORD, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America's Most Secret Agency (1982), explores in a well-researched investigative framework the National Security Agency's operations, using unpublished archival and official information. A general survey is given in MARK M. LOWENTHAL, U.S. Intelligence: Evolution and Anatomy (1984). GERALD W. HOPPLE and BRUCE W. WATSON (eds.), The Military Intelligence Community (1986); and SCOTT D. BRECKINRIDGE, The CIA and the U.S. Intelligence System (1986), examine the organizations and operations of intelligence professionals and the relevant legal and ethical problems. Further discussion of the latter is available in BRUCE W. WATSON and PETER M. DUNN (eds.), Military Intelligence and the Universities: A Study of an Ambivalent Relationship (1984). Useful reference information is found in JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFF, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military Terms (1988); and GEORGE C. CONSTANTINIDES, Intelligence and Espionage: An Analytical Bibliography (1983), an annotated list of about 500 important nonfiction works on a group of related topics. (B.W.Wa.)


4.11 Guerrilla warfare.

ROBERT B. ASPREY, War in the Shadows: The Guerrilla in History, 2 vol. (1975), surveys guerrilla and counterguerrilla warfare from its origin to the 1970s. For specific guerrilla studies, see REGINALD HARGREAVES, Beyond the Rubicon: A History of Early Rome (1967); FERDINAND SCHEVILL, The History of the Balkan Peninsula, from the Earliest Times to the Present Day (1922, reprinted 1971); R.C. SMAIL, Crusading Warfare, 1097-1193 (1956, reprinted 1972); JOHN E. MORRIS, The Welsh Wars of Edward I (1901, reprinted 1969); C.E. CALLWELL, Small Wars: Their Principles and Practice (1906, reprinted 1976); JOHN R. ALDEN, The South in the Revolution, 1763-1789 (1957, reprinted 1976); RUSSELL F. WEIGLEY, History of the United States Army, enlarged ed. (1984); M.R.D. FOOT, SOE in France: An Account of the Work of the British Special Operations Executive in France, 1940-1944 (1966, reprinted 1984); OTTO HEILBRUNN, Warfare in the Enemy's Rear (1963); and DAVID GALULA, Counterinsurgency Warfare: Theory and Practice (1964).

Studies of specific campaigns include LEON WOLFF, Little Brown Brother: How the United States Purchased and Pacified the Philippine Islands at the Century's Turn (1961, reissued 1970); NAPOLEON D. VALERIANO, Counter-Guerrilla Operations: The Philippine Experience (1962); RONALD ATKIN, Revolution!: Mexico 1910-1920 (1969); EDGAR HOLT, Protest in Arms: The Irish Troubles, 1916-1923 (1960); FITZROY MACLEAN, Disputed Barricade: The Life and Times of Josip Broz-Tito, Marshal of Jugoslavia (1957); JOHN A. ARMSTRONG, Soviet Partisans in World War II (1964); EDGAR O'BALLANCE, The Greek Civil War, 1944-1949 (1966); DAVID S. WOOLMAN, Rebels in the Rif: Abd el Krim and the Rif Rebellion (1968); RICHARD L. CLUTTERBUCK, The Long, Long War: Counterinsurgency in Malaya and Vietnam (1966); PETER PARET, French Revolutionary Warfare from Indochina to Algeria: The Analysis of a Political and Military Doctrine (1964); and BERNARD B. FALL, The Two Viet-Nams: A Political and Military Analysis, 2nd rev. ed. (1967, reprinted 1984). (R.B.A.)



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