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The Theory and Conduct of War

전쟁이론과 전쟁수행

1 Introduction



1 Introduction

War in the popular sense is a conflict among political groups involving hostilities of considerable duration and magnitude. In the usage of social science certain qualifications are added. Sociologists usually apply the term to such conflicts only if they are initiated and conducted in accordance with socially recognized forms. They treat war as an institution recognized in custom or in law. Military writers usually confine the term to hostilities in which the contending groups are sufficiently equal in power to render the outcome uncertain for a time. Armed conflicts of powerful states with primitive peoples are usually called pacifications, military expeditions, or explorations; with small states, they are called interventions or reprisals; and with internal groups, rebellions or insurrections. Such incidents, if the resistance is sufficiently strong or protracted, may achieve a magnitude that entitles them to the name "war."

This article is in two major sections. The first treats the social sciences of war, such as law, economics, and theories of the causes and prevention of war. The second section presents the military arts and sciences, such as strategy, tactics, logistics, and intelligence.

War is treated in several other Macropædia articles. For the relation between diplomacy and war, see INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, 20TH-CENTURY . For the weapons of war, see WAR, THE TECHNOLOGY OF . For a history of World Wars I and II, see WORLD WARS, THE . Other wars are covered in the history sections of articles on the relevant countries or regions--e.g., for the American Civil War, see UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: Civil War ; for the Punic Wars, see GREEK AND ROMAN CIVILIZATIONS, ANCIENT: The middle republic .


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